Stories From River Music to Rock in the Missouri Delta

By Matt Chaney, for ChaneysBlog.com

Copyright ©2019 for historical arrangement and original content by Matthew L. Chaney, Four Walls Publishing

Feb. 16, 2017

Missouri Boasts Its Place in Rock ‘n’ Roll History

March 6, 2017

Rock ‘n’ Roll Thrived in Underworld of the Missouri Delta

March 16, 2017

1964: The Beatles Flee For Hills of Missouri

April 2, 2017

The Local Elvis: From Good Kid to Garbo in Rock Legend

April 27, 2017

The Missouri Delta Nurtured Rock ‘n’ Roll

May 6, 2017

Memphis Cast Delta Beacon for Rockabillies

June 3, 2017

As Rockabilly Fell, Musicians Adapted in Delta

July 22, 2017

1955: Elvis Effect Rocked The Missouri Delta

July 29, 2017

Memphis, Sun Records Integrated Music in Race and Genre

Aug. 9, 2017

Rockabilly Born of Boomer America

Aug. 12, 2017

1955: The Local Elvis in Missouri, Cut 2

Aug. 24, 2017

1956: Girls Mob Elvis from Missouri to New York

Sept. 14, 2017

The Delta Factor In Great American Music

Sept. 26, 2017

Pioneer American Pop Star: Nelson Kneass

Sept. 30, 2017

Steamboats Impacted The South Despite Quaky Start

Oct. 16, 2017

Entertainers Followed Rivers West and South

Oct. 24, 2017

River Music, American Music Prior to Civil War

Nov. 10, 2017

American Pop Music’s Bittersweet, Essential Beginning

Nov. 19, 2017

River Entertainment Illuminated Cairo in Desolate Delta

Dec. 1, 2017

Blacks Electrified Early American Music and Dance

Dec. 14, 2017

Showbiz Hooked the Kids of Cairo, Illinois

Jan. 13, 2018

Music and Social Mores in Swamp-east Missouri

Feb. 2, 2018

American Music: ‘Jazz horns were on fire along the delta’

Feb. 20, 2018

Music Legend from ‘Satchmo’ to Elvis in Pemiscot County, Missouri

June 28, 2018

Jazz Great Jess Stacy Lived The Highs, Lows of Showbiz

July 8, 2018

Hot Dancing’s Popularity Overwhelmed Churchmen a Century Ago

August 10, 2018

Showbiz Landed at the Missouri Delta and Cairo

August 31, 2018

Olden Circus Topped Baseball for Athleticism at Cairo, Illinois

September 19, 2018

Circus Spectacle Inspired Show Hopefuls at Cairo, Illinois

November 10, 2018

Delta Youths Gravitated Toward Music, Stage Stardom

December 29, 2018

1881: Song and Dance Rocked the Opera House at Cairo, Illinois

January 29, 2019

Pioneer Radio Aired Jazz and Country Music from Paducah

January 31, 2019

Radio Rolled Out Grand Ole Opry from Nashville

February 26, 2019

Jess Stacy Grew With American Music in the Missouri Delta

Matt Chaney is a writer and consultant in Missouri, USA, who is compiling a book tentatively titled, From River Music to Rock in the Missouri Delta. For more information visit www.fourwallspublishing.com.  Email: mattchaney@fourwallspublishing.com.

AMA Doctors Favored Football in Historic Debates

By Matt Chaney, for ChaneysBlog.com

Posted Tuesday, May 7, 2019

I.  Introduction

II. AMA Confronts Brutal Football, Condemns Boys Game

III. JAMA Editor is Heavyweight of Football Debate

IV. Fishbein Sells Safer Football, Safer Cigarettes for AMA

V.  Conclusion

Copyright ©2019 for original content and historical arrangement by Matthew L. Chaney, Four Walls Publishing

American medical organizations are prone to fumble the issue of tackle football, to chop-block Hippocratic Oath, by shielding the injurious game from criticism and accountability—including for brain damage of players.

The American Medical Association was ally of King Football through recurring controversies of the 20th century. JAMA, prestigious journal of the AMA, protected the collision sport in debates from the Depression Era through Vietnam War.

During the 1950s and ’60s, AMA publications and rhetoric were overrun with authors and theorists of sports medicine. Their safety claims proved critical in preserving youth football from abolition.

Football friendliness of the AMA turned hypocritical in the 1980s, blatantly exposed. JAMA editor Dr. George D. Lundberg called for a ban on boxing, citing brain trauma, while simultaneously deeming the gridiron acceptable, including for juveniles. Lundberg, a closet football fan, argued that boxers intentionally inflicted TBI while gridiron harm was incidental, free of malicious intent.

The AMA convention backed Lundberg as critics responded from America and abroad.

“Their position is almost laughable,” Dr. Ferdie Pacheco, boxing physician and TV commentator, said in 1985. “I think people need to remember a few things about the AMA. It represents less than 50 percent of doctors in the country. It’s not a scientific [research] group. It’s a politically oriented lobbying group.”

“If the group really cared about safety in athletics, it would have picked on other sports—football, for starters… They picked on a flea when there are some real elephants out there.”

“The only problem the AMA encounters in this mission is one of discrimination,” stated Melvin Durslag, news columnist. “If, in the interest of life and health, it asks for the abolition of boxing, how can it explain auto racing and football?”

“In [an NFL] game the other day between Dallas and Philadelphia, Tony Dorsett was rammed head-on by a tackler clad in the conventional helmet of iron-like plastic. Tony was knocked colder than Duluth, Minnesota. Does the AMA feel this was helpful to his brain?”

Lundberg and AMA associates clung to their position into the 2000s, until overwhelmed by emerging evidence of brain damage in football players, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, or “CTE.” Lundberg came to acknowledge mistakes, sort of.

“Over the years, many physicians have asked me why I was so avid in my condemnation of boxing and completely quiet about the hazards of American football,” Lundberg commented for Medscape.com in 2016. “After all, blows to the head damage the brain, whatever the sport and whether or not the person delivering the blow is paid. I have always considered the moral difference between boxing and football to be stark.”

“Until today, I have never answered those critics. I am biased. I have been in love with American football at least since Harry Gilmer led Alabama’s Crimson Tide to a 34-14 victory over the University of Southern California in the Rose Bowl on January 1, 1946… I never stopped loving the Tide. I was a skinny kid but I was fast and I could catch any ball thrown near me. Three broken arms later, I gave up playing.”

“So, my huge bias delayed confessing reality,” Lundberg continued. “Football blows to the head damage the brain. We now have so much evidence, both clinical and, especially, from autopsies… Just as in boxing, it is not only the knockout-defined concussions but the multiple, repetitive sub-concussive blows that tear small blood vessels and brain fibers each time the movable brain bounces around inside the rigid skull.”

Dr. Lundberg still believed boxing should be outlawed but amended his stance to endorse banning football for ages 12 and under. The former JAMA editor also still believed football officials, their repetitive pledge to devise safe contact sport.

II. AMA Confronts Brutal Football, Condemns Boys Game

By turn of the 20th century, football advocates had their talking points together for recurring debate over field brutality. In 1900, football’s latest “reform,” officials touted new rules, modern equipment, medical supervision, and trained coaches to instill “proper tackling.”

Officials and associates promised “safe football” would finally materialize, fulfilling the stated mission since 1887. They said common transportation killed more than the gridiron, citing accidents of horsepower, bicycles, boats and railroads.

Self-anointed “football experts” dismissed publicized death counts as inaccurate and exaggerated by newsmen. The experts conducted their own surveys and announced more research was needed, from in-house, to determine true risk and outcome of playing fields.

Football policymakers had stock claims for preventing “concussion of the brain,” rampant in their forwarding-colliding sport. Traumatic insanity of head blows, linked postmortem to microscopic hemorrhages of brain tissue, wrought mental disorders recognized in clinical literature. Some families and doctors, communicating in public, believed traumatic brain injury had spurred violence and suicide in their athletes of football and boxing.

To quell concern, football coaches and trainers hawked new helmets, their creations of patent leather and pneumatic rubber. Headgear was trial-tested on players, and promotional text for a leading model, 1900, stated: “The head harness was formerly of felt, but of late years a solid leather headpiece has been invented. It is made of the heaviest English oak-tanned leather… This headgear is ventilated and is made with a double crown to protect the entire top of the head; it breaks the force of any blow received.”

Personnel pledged “open play” and rules enforcement would eliminate cerebral concussion. The 10-man flying wedge had been banned years ago, they reminded, and smaller “mass” formations were under control.

Officials touted “low tackling” for headless hitting, teaching players to strike with shoulder and chest, eyes up, to avoid cranium shots. “The best way to learn tackling is with a dummy with head thrown to one side. That saves your head,” said Dr. R.C. Armstrong, coach-physician in Brooklyn, 1899.

Football advocates from all walks rallied for game preservation. They said criticism was groundless, repetitive, heard from jealous wimps with no grasp of manly sport.

Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt, fervent football fan, railed against game adversaries. The rising politician and Harvard alum vowed his sons would play football and build character from injury experience. Roosevelt enjoyed the grandstanding, such as cheering from sidelines at games, highly visible, fist-pumping like a player he wasn’t in college. Shrewdly, Roosevelt reaped political capital in votes and favors, because millions loved football like him.

Anybody could claim anything, really, in defense of beloved football. Hardly anyone tracked the reform phases and failures in some 25 years of American blood-letting. Indeed, headless contact had been tried for a decade already, fixing nothing, along with more theoretical concepts.

Football spectacle was a national institution, economically, socially and ideologically. Casualties were acceptable price for the preferred entertainment, and many if not most physicians cared nothing of “football hurts.” Many had played the game.

In 1900 JAMA endorsed the football word of leaders like Walter Camp, who argued brutal play was isolated and “unsupervised,” existing only at small schools, clubs and sandlots. The AMA Journal qualified university football as milder than “gladiatorial combat” and poked at naysayers, editorializing: “Aside from its apparent dangers, which are probably less real than might be thought, it has its merits as an athletic exercise, and evidently demands more than mere muscle.”

“There is a chance for more thorough research into the effects of football on [human physiology],” JAMA stated, “but so far as the evidence is in, the particular charges made seem hardly justified.”

Football carnage continued, predictably, including for elite programs like the Yale juggernaut of Camp. Emergency response and trauma care were primitive, useless to save victims of severe brain bleed or spinal dislocation, among football damages. Infection ravaged injured athletes in this era before penicillin antibiotics. Football death occurred of bone fracture, organ trauma and skin laceration, sometimes years after mishap, for lack of treatment.

Today’s football by comparison—some five million players, majority juvenile—produces tens of thousands of bone fractures annually. Higher numbers of variously wounded enter surgery. Incidents of brain trauma, largely undiagnosed, likely reach millions. The contemporary American gridiron would kill and maim like warfare, massively, if relying on medicine of a century ago.

In 1902 JAMA staffers collected football reports and analyzed casualties. “Thus far the returns give 12 deaths, several fatally injured and over eighty seriously injured,” editors announced in December. “Among the serious casualties of the game this year we have fractured skulls, injured spines, brain injuries resulting in insanity, as well as broken legs, ribs, collar-bones, etc. To be a cripple or lunatic for life is paying high for athletic emulation.”

The AMA editors weren’t condemning football itself, just human factors. JAMA called for officials to revise rules, once again, and to ensure enforcement by field referees. Editors opined “it would seem that something might be done by those in charge of college athletics at least, to modify the roughness of the game and somewhat reduce its risks… brutality is utterly needless and deserves the severest condemnation and consign punishment.”

But brutality was not incidental of head-on football, only inherent. Danger element could not be attributed to inept rules, bad technique, poor coaching and medical response. Vicious hits and harm were DNA of the sport, explicitly. “It is a mere gladiatorial combat; it is brutal throughout,” said Karl Brill, Harvard All-American tackle who quit football. “When you are opposed to a strong man you have got to get the better of him by violence.”

“I fail to see where the gray matter in a man’s head is exercised at all, nor am I able to see how football is the intricate game some proclaim it to be. Neither do I see how the game can be reformed or remedied.”

JAMA editors detected no safe football in 1903 and expressed chagrin for officials. “The fatalities and injuries… were probably not more numerous or more grave than in recent years,” the journal editorialized. “While we do not wish to be considered as opposing legitimate athletic sports, we believe that in this particular game the human wreckage far outweighs the good resulting from three or four months of athletic exercise and training.”

JAMA editors still hadn’t given up on football. They commended the game’s instilling campus pride and spirit, along with “honest rivalry in manly sports and athletic exercises.” The Journal backed President Roosevelt in 1905,  who blamed brutality on “dirty” players and lousy referees, for his effort to cleanse football.  The “open game” was Roosevelt’s solution, and scores of colleges jumped the bandwagon, trumpeting presidential reform and “safer football.” This faction, led by Teddy’s alma mater Harvard, was merely bureaucracy to mushroom, become known as the National Collegiate Athletic Association, NCAA.

“President Roosevelt is to be congratulated,” JAMA editors declared. “It was his vigorous protest and personal intervention which, more than anything else, brought the football rules committee to its senses.”

Optimism flattened in 1907. The Roosevelt reform hadn’t reduced risk of football, but did inspire scary colliding in open field, injurious as mass scrums. Critics howled, charging folly for so-called Debrutalized Football. “The revised rules of the game have not fulfilled the hopes of the framers… speed and combination plays have proved almost as hazardous,” observed a newspaper scribe. “The ‘reformed’ game has been abruptly ended in smaller cities in which players have been seriously injured or killed.”

Roosevelt blamed college leaders and referees for failing to stiffen code against “unnecessary roughness.” The president insisted “there is no real need for considering the question of the abolition of the game.” He said malicious players were culprit, not wholesome collision football, although he wished it “less homicidal.”

The AMA was souring on hocus-pocus about reforming football. “It was hoped that the open game, introduced by changes in the rules, would take away much of the stigma that has attached to the sport because of accidents, but that hope has proved illusory,” JAMA editorialized. “The question that naturally arises is whether the game is worth the candle.”

Tackle football wasn’t worth it for boys, said critics who denounced “junior” play emerging at schools, clubs and sandlots. The anti-movement included college coaches and players who disavowed boys football—and doctors of the American Medical Association, chirping up from hinterland offices to organization headquarters.

The AMA and its Journal comprised the most powerful entity in U.S. medicine, and likewise stood suspect for heavy handedness in health and trade. The curious relationship with gory football lent credence to allegations.

AMA honchos, editors among them, ruled agenda-setting, finances, and group communication from the non-profit’s headquarters in Chicago. The setup smelled like administrative “tyranny” to Kenneth W. Millican, who critiqued medical industry in 1906.

The AMA posed “a formidable body” in national membership and societal impact, Millican observed for Medical Record. “It can be powerful for good or for evil; in which direction its influence will be cast will depend entirely upon the character of the few men who from time to time must inevitably control its destiny.”

Millican noted, or warned, that a handful of officials could act in defiance of AMA thousands. “Issues will crop up in which the few… will dictate one course, while the majority will prefer another.”

Junior football didn’t divide the association, at least not in 1907. That December the AMA Journal, under editor Dr. George H. Simmons, condemned contact football for juveniles. The editorial, titled “Football Mortality Among Boys,” began: “We called attention early in the season to the fact that deaths and serious injuries were resulting from football, in spite of the claims made that the new rules would give comparative exemption from the dangers of the unreformed game of three years ago.”

JAMA reported football produced 14 fatalities in 1907. Twelve of the deaths were of schools and sandlots, “by whom the new rules are not so carefully followed.” Regarding college football, editors would withhold “final judgment” until further consideration.

“There need be no hesitation, however, in deciding that football is no game for boys to play,” JAMA proclaimed. “Of the whole fourteen killed the ages averaged something under eighteen years; none was over twenty.”

Editors alluded to a football belief that players had but shelf life in the maw, often rendering youths “used up” before collegiate competition. “If football were to be prohibited for students under eighteen and this weeding-out process stopped, then surely there would be more deaths among the older players!” the Journal cracked.

“We may not be able to stop the game, even if it were desirable to do so, but we can prevent some of its evil results,” editors concluded. “It is clear that persons of delicate build or of immature development should not be allowed to engage in football. If we must have this gladiatorial ‘sport,’ would it not be better to adopt gladiatorial methods and have the game played only by fully-developed men who had passed a severe physical examination before beginning the course of training?”

The JAMA bomb invigorated foes of kids football—doctors, lawmakers, educators, parents, college coaches, players, journalists—on their crusade that fell short of establishing legal bans before World War I.

But AMA hierarchy wouldn’t threaten King Football again, for the century and beyond, child combatants notwithstanding. On the contrary, AMA brass and publications would demonstrate unseemly patronage for “youth football,” wholly inappropriate per medical standards and juvenile law, in time ahead.

III. JAMA Editor is Heavyweight of Football Debate 

Organized tackle football for boys and adolescents grew rapidly after World War I, expanding through the Depression Era at schools, clubs and parks. Casualties rose in relation. “Injuries on the football field are a major concern,” Pennsylvania doctors observed in 1937. “While there are about 70,000 college students playing football this fall, there are 700,000 high school boys.”

“Authorities of the game have endeavored to make it safer for the players,” added the medical society, noting historical failures. “Despite whatever may be done to minimize football injuries, there will be more than 70,000 injuries on gridirons of the United States this fall.”

Then medical sarcasm:

“Get that ball!”

“Hit that line!”

“Let’s go, team!”

Many skeptics of cleansed football turned cynical by the 1940s, and debate blew up in public. Juvenile participation was flash-point topic, football’s growth sector, and supporters dug in. Questions loomed regarding medical ethics, child protection and education policy in America. Many doctors proposed to ban tackle football for youths under driving age.

The fray drew star physicians of mass media, debating youth football. The three biggest medical names of print and radio proffered opinions: Drs. Logan Clendening and William Brady, syndicated newspaper columnists, and the AMA heavyweight, Dr. Morris Fishbein, Journal editor, print columnist, and recognized czar of the monolith association.

Dr. Logan Clendening analyzed tackle football from a medico-legal perspective, finding gross negligence, malicious disregard on part of game organizers. “What is the excuse for all this death, suffering and disability that compares with war?” Clendening posed, insinuating blame for medicine, government and education. “It doesn’t ‘make men’ as the coaches argue. It isn’t good sport. It has become one of the stupidest games on earth for the spectator.”

Clendening, who collected injury cases from newspapers, paid a clipping service for the 1941 football season. Thousands of casualty reports were harvested, immense news data for medical follow-up. “Note once more the preponderance of high-school injuries,” Clendening emphasized in his column, “which supports my contention that boys of high school are not physically matured enough to stand the gaff, at least until they are seniors.”

Clendening, proponent of forensic medicine, attributed 23 deaths to football in the year, including 14 schoolboys and 8 sandlot players. For disabling injury, he detected high rates. “The chances are one-to-four [a schoolboy] will receive an injury sufficiently serious to lay him up. The chances are one-to-five that he will receive a permanent injury that will last through life.” An estimated 1.2 million school days were lost by injured players every year.

Like many physicians, Clendening logically associated brain damage of pugilism, known as “punch drunk” disorder in literature, to the same likelihood for football colliding. “The condition is not confined to boxers, and may occur in football players or to anyone who receives a severe blow on the head,” he observed.

Dr. William Brady agreed, having linked brain damage to school football for years in his columns, since Harrison Martland’s microscopic study of deceased boxers. Brady had written for newspapers 35 years, a trailblazer among medical columnists. He regularly ripped boys football, inciting hate mail from schoolchildren and adults.

Brady challenged any ethical physician, acting objectively, to deem tackle football suitable for youths. Brady identified schools as football dens of bully recruitment, where faculty and students groomed boys to play. Anti-football administrators concealed sentiments from local football hordes, Brady alleged, and parents avoided interceding for sons.

“It is bad enough for college freshmen to attempt to train for football,” Brady commented in December 1949. “It is absurd and shameful to permit the ‘sports’ of the community to use growing boys of high school age as stooges in the football burlesque.”

“Football is a grown man’s game, and high school boys, even lanky ones, are not full-grown men.”

A national audience awaited Dr. Morris Fishbein of the AMA, his comments on school football hyped for release 24 hours after Brady’s from Chicago.

Fishbein was an impact leader of American opinion for three decades, a voice of reach rivaling the president’s in any year. Fishbein was known as editorial pen of various AMA publications he founded, and synonymous for JAMA. But Fishbein fame was culturally ingrained for his popular press. His syndicate columns ran weekly in newspapers and Reader’s Digest. His medical encyclopedias stood ready in countless homes, revered as gospel. Fishbein’s voice was heard through every radio on AMA broadcasts, and the indefatigable personality visited thousands of locales, a celebrity on speaking circuit.

Presumably Dr. Fishbein would judge collision sport for kids in medico-scientific manner, given his reputation and so much at stake. Presumably Fishbein of the AMA, trusted by millions, would act free of bias or politics favoring King Football. Presumably Fishbein was fully informed for his grid proclamation, having premiere access to football files, medical literature and contacts surrounding the sport. He had written extensively of football risks, ranking brain “concussion” as the game’s No. 1 problem.

IV. Fishbein Sells Safer Football, Safer Cigarettes for AMA

JAMA Editor Dr. Morris Fishbein knew Dr. Harrison Martland as colleague, having published the pathologist’s landmark study on “punch drunk” in 1928. Fishbein knew of “traumatic insanity” of the 1800s, or should have. Such brain damage was visible under microscope following the Civil War, in full autopsy of dead sufferers.  Dr. John W. Perkins characterized brain matter as egg yolk during injury, jolted by inertia, bashing into cranial walls. Perkins discussed “traumatic cerebral lesions” attributed to “old injury,” different than gross destruction of acute subdural hematoma. And Journal of the American Medical Association published Perkins—in 1896.

Fishbein witnessed a host of doctors link brain damage to tackle football after Martland’s boxing revelations, among them Irving S. Cutter, James A. Barton, Edward J. Carroll, Jr., and Ernst Jokl. A particular medical term was established in 1940, chronic traumatic encephalopathy—yes, CTE—coined by Drs. Karl M. Bowen and Abram Blau. Football referee Dr. Eddie O’Brien said excessive contact caused punch drunkenness. Coach Jim Crowley, one of the legendary Four Horsemen, reduced full-contact scrimmages for his Michigan State players, specifying “punch drunk” risk. Countless sportswriters made the connection.

Regardless, Fishbein himself would not associate traumatic brain disorder with football, not publicly, and microscopic autopsy wasn’t yet performed on a deceased player to impress him either way. Fishbein’s clout could’ve made that happen, his demanding football pursue obvious research in wake of  Martland findings—examining a) brain damage in deceased players and b) cognitive deficit in the living—but he kept quiet.

Fishbein identified mental illness as endemic in America but blamed “high-tension” society and factors such as child labor, which he labeled “a great menace to future citizens.” The possibility of a nationalized head-knocking dogma, perpetuated through rites like head-ramming football, sanctioned violence, wasn’t broached by Fishbein.

Dr. Fishbein also schmoozed around football types since his days at University of Chicago, then featuring great teams of Amos Alonzo Stagg. Fishbein had known late coach Knute Rockne, who joked to Collier’s about a punch-drunk lineman for Notre Dame. Fishbein was friend of George Halas, NFL owner and Bears coach who designed a football helmet. Fishbein welcomed doctors of fledgling “sports medicine” to JAMA pages, having published their articles and letters since taking over editorial around 1920. A socialite, Fishbein enjoyed football games even if dropped at his college alma mater.

During holiday season of 1949, Dr. Fishbein watched a high-school football game in Chicago then informed a reporter of his stance on juvenile participation. His comments hit news wires on Dec. 20, the day following remarks of Dr. William Brady.

Fishbein of the AMA believed tackle football should be preserved for the Boomer Generation, including juveniles. “The number of deaths and permanent injuries do not warrant the elimination of the game from a high school athletic program,” he said. “In reality, basketball and boxing are much harder on youths than football. I believe boxing should be banned in high schools.”

“Football, in my opinion, is not too dangerous a sport for high school boys.”

Fishbein parroted classic talking points of football advocates. He said play was safer because of rule changes, sound coaching, trained athletes, and, of course, modern equipment. Fishbein said plastic hard-shell helmets, joint creation of football and the military, were finally preventing head injury. “Formerly, helmets were actually a weapon,” he reasoned. “Now they are a protective piece.”

With Fishbein’s blessing, high school football counted as AMA Approved—a real trademark that was household cliché, recognized everywhere. The AMA granted its “seal of approval” to institutions, groups, products and services. Supposedly each was vetted for promoting health in some manner. Most significantly, every vendor or organization bought advertising in AMA publications, with collections payable to Fishbein’s office in Chicago.

AMA approval was displayed and broadcast everywhere, adorning medical schools, hospitals, practices, skin lotion, milk, food, cod liver oil, funeral homes and motorcycle helmets, among the array. Wheaties cereal was AMA-approved, “Breakfast of Champions,” as an advertiser with Fishbein.

Critics were legion with many from inside the AMA. Columnist Dr. Brady ridiculed the association for decades as a member, focusing his ire on Fishbein, bitter rival on issues like football and cigarettes. The two exchanged editorial putdowns, squabbling over scientific standards and news ethics, among topics. Brady honed in on dark “approval” business of the AMA, naturally.

“Doctors on the Make,” Brady headlined his national column in early 1950, following Fishbein’s overdue departure from the AMA. Brady had dropped membership a few years before. “I couldn’t stomach the way the nominal officers of the AMA permitted the dictator, now deposed, to insult them,” he stated.

Brady derided Fishbein as the “Great Pooh-Bah” formerly in charge of the “comic weekly” Journal. Brady charged corrupt trade and communication, “a racket whereby the American Medical Association ‘accepts’ and grants its seal of approval or acceptance to the thousand and one medicines, foods, gadgets, methods, processes and even patents. This racket beats any similar scheme of popular magazines as a means of assuring a huge advertising revenue.”

Cigarettes weren’t exactly AMA-approved, not explicitly. But Fishbein valued tobacco advertising for his Journal, exceeding $100,000 in annual revenue after World War II. Cigarette makers appreciated him likewise. The rhetoric of Dr. Fishbein, a public-relations specialist with medical doctorate, effectively shielded Big Tobacco—a JAMA cash cow along with drug companies—through controversy of the early 20th century.

Doctors increasingly recommended against smoking, citing potential risks and conservative ethic of Do no harm. Many were smokers themselves, one form or another.

In 1939 an expectant mother was advised to halt cigarettes by her physician, so she wrote a medical columnist for his opinion. Dr. George W. Crane answered in print, stating no definitive evidence yet existed of smoking’s harm during pregnancy. “On the other hand,” he added, “there is no clear-cut evidence to prove that use of tobacco may not exercise injurious effects on the unborn baby.” Dr. Crane affirmed the recommendation a pregnant mother shouldn’t smoke.

Dr. Fishbein rationalized differently in his column, lending benefit of doubt to cigarette use, not human health, in the matter of smoking during pregnancy. While Fishbein acknowledged harm to the unborn “seems certain” he attached the caveat: “Many additional studies, are required, however, to determine whether the harm is sufficient to prevent smoking in moderation by prospective mothers.”

And so it went according to Fishbein of the AMA, in a quarter-century of addressing tobacco use, until 1949. He didn’t deny risks but wouldn’t condemn the popular activity, always conjuring positives for smoking, always advocating more research. Fishbein suggested casualties were negligible with millions of adults puffing billions of cigarettes. He hit the fact thousands of doctors smoked cigarettes, right in sync with the focus campaign of Big Tobacco.

A blitz of cigarette advertising made buzz for the theme of doctors in love with cigarettes. Physicians in photos and illustrations were featured lighting up at work and leisure. “More Doctors Smoke Camels Than Any Other Cigarette” was a slogan indelibly stamped in American conscious of the period. Print pages, placards and billboards were plastered for years of ridiculous images.

Fishbein blamed excessive smokers for any harm documented. He maintained extremists grew ill for their own abuse of cigarettes and cigars. In contrast “safer smoking,” by the blossoming term, was an innocent pleasure for adults to indulge. Clinicians theorized smoking comforted users with beneficial “psychological effects,” Fishbein told audiences.

Fishbein said cigarettes in moderation could relieve anxiety and hunger pangs, or serve as mental stimulant. Fishbein advised smokers purchase only fine processed tobacco, avoiding the “hard, coarse, commoner varieties” that certainly didn’t advertise in JAMA. Fishbein quoted an expert who said, “Speaking generally, tobacco smoking in moderation is not injurious to grown-up people.”

While willing to reach for positives about cigarettes, Fishbein downplayed studies linking maladies of heart, lungs and circulatory system, always suggesting invalid research. “From the available evidence there is no ground for any startling announcement about smoking,” Fishbein proclaimed in his newspaper column.

He approached tackle football same as tobacco use, conservatively guarding the activity if not human participants. At end of 1949 Dr. Morris Fishbein was popular for his football stance, but charade of safer cigarettes hastened his demise at the AMA. Fishbein resigned under pressure, primarily for his nasty opposition to group insurance and subsidized healthcare. That battle pitted Fishbein, “Medical Mussoli,” versus President Harry S. Truman, and the doctor went down.

Fishbein also took heat for posing as cigarette scientist, with the besmirching JAMA and the organization. “The stately American Medical Association finds itself on the spot about cigarette advertising. Its official Journal accepts cigarette company advertising—but it finds the medical claims rather embarrassing,” editorialized the Des Moines Register.

Fishbein and the AMA were guilty of “ardent promotion of cigarette smoking,” Dr. William Brady decried in column. “To be sure, Doctor Fishbein is no longer in the saddle, but it remains to be seen whether the organization will regain the prestige the AMA enjoyed before it went commercial.”

V. Conclusion

In 1953 cigarette advertising was dropped by the AMA, which acquiesced to angry members, public pressure, and mounting conclusions of tobacco risk. The association abruptly denounced cigarettes as dangerous, and the convention in San Francisco unveiled “startling” new research. “A team of medical experts reported that cigarette smoking shortens human life… and definitely causes higher death rates from heart disease and cancer,” media reported.

But the association didn’t deviate on collision football, maintaining status quo. The group continued to endorse tackle football for children and adults, promoting “benefits of sound health.” Simultaneously, the Journal crusaded against television for concern of child viewers; doctors said “horror shows” likely posed “adverse medical and psychological implications” for kids. JAMA, pulling major press, called on the television industry to fund valid research on risks. Meanwhile the AMA still avoided confronting football for essential brain studies, three decades after Martland on boxing.

JAMA instructed parents to closely monitor television for content harmful to young minds. In stark contrast, regarding football, the AMA wizards told worrisome parents to back off, lest they damage male psyche of sons.

“To anxious parents of sons who want to play football, the best advice is—let them. No, that is not enough. HELP them to play it safely,” declared Dr. W.W. Bauer, AMA-Approved health columnist for newspapers. “When a high-school boy wants to play football, this cannot be denied him without possibly doing injury which may be worse than he is likely to sustain on the properly supervised playing field.”

“A great many parents base their apprehensions on an overemphasis of the hazards connected with playing football,” Bauer commented. “Between the ages of 15 and 25, when most of the football activity occurs, accidents to pedestrians and motor-vehicle fatalities of the same age group are 15 times as frequent.”

“The relative safety of the game, despite its reputation for roughness, should prompt parents not to interfere with the athletic activity of their boys including football.”

Dr. Bauer talked the timeless points and promises of grid safety, echoing again nationwide. Anti-concussion helmets, “heads up” tackling, everything was in the offing once more.

And more doctors preferred football than any other sport, based on quotes and testimony flooding multimedia. Promoting doctor approval was a page from King Football’s playbook, merely replicated of late by Big Tobacco.

JAMA was establishing trend for journals by stabling sport doctors and academics, including Allan J. Ryan, Augustus Thorndike and Fred Vein. The MDs and PhDs, specialists of newly formalized sports medicine, melded right in at association publications and confabs. Football was AMA-approved like never before.

Dreams, concepts, gadgets, experts—all came stylish again in America. Anything seemed possible in the Space Age, including safe smoking and safe football.

“Football can be a killer and a maimer,” JAMA intoned, “but for the player it is also a wholesome and valuable experience that—like life itself—can be made safer.”

Matt Chaney is an author, editor, and consultant on public issues in sport, specializing in American football. Chaney, MA in media studies, is a former college football player and coach whose books include Spiral of Denial: Muscle Doping in American Football, 2009Chaney’s study for graduate thesis, co-published with the University of Central Missouri in 2001, analyzed print sport-media coverage of anabolic substances in football from 1983-1999. Email him at mattchaney@fourwallspublishing.com or visit the website for more information.

Select References

13 Die, Scores Hurt in Football Games. (1907, Nov. 28). Waterloo Press IN, p. 2.

30-Day Smoking Test Proves Camel Mildness. (1943, Sept. 15). [Advertisement.] Nevada State Journal, Reno NV, p. 7.

130 Attend Annual Rotary Club Football Banquet Monday Night. (1946, Dec. 10). Logan Daily News OH, p. 6.

A Lady Admirer Of High Kicking. (1889, Nov. 9). Wilkes-Barre Evening News PA, p. 4.

A Fifteen-Year-Old. (1891, Sept. 24). Salina Republican KS, p. 3.

A Public Service. (1931, June 16). Waterloo Courier IA, p. 6.

A Story from a Mad House. (1886, July 19). Camden Courier-Post NJ, p. 1.

“Abuse of Sport is Not Excuse for Prohibiting It”—Roosevelt. (1907, Feb. 24). Detroit Free Press MI, p. 13.

Adams, J. (2005, June 14). Push for ban on boxing is still hotly debated. Louisville Courier-Journal KY, p. K4.

Affairs at Rutgers College. (1890, Oct. 12). New York Times NY, p. 3.

AMA Drops Seal Of Approval Program. (1955, Feb. 18). Shamokin News-Dispatch PA, p. 1.

AMA Silences Dr. Fishbein as Spokesman for Medicine. (1949, June 7). Wilmington News Journal DE, p. 14.

A.M.A. Hierarchy Dodgers Real Reforms in Medicine. (1949, Feb. 15). Detroit Free Press MI, p.6.

Amputate Right Leg Following Old Football Injury. (1904, Nov. 17). Louisville Courier-Journal KY, p. 7.

Armor for Football. (1900, Nov. 11). Chicago Inter Ocean IL, p. 45.

At a Recent Meeting. (1903, April 7). San Francisco Chronicle CA, p. 6.

At the Training School at Elwyn. (1892, June 15). Philadelphia Inquirer PA, p. 1.

Athletics and Health. (1913, Jan. 14). Rutland Herald VT, p. 11.

Bachynski, K.E. (2016). No game for boys to play: Debating the safety of youth football, 1945-2015. [PhD dissertation.] Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Columbia University: New York, NY.

Bachynski, K.E. (2019, January). “The duty of their elders”—Doctors, coaches, and the framing of youth football’s health risks, 1950s-1960s. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 74(1), pp. 1-25.

Balch, H. (1959, July 25). Hush Puppies. Orlando Sentinel FL, p. 16.

Barnes, B.S. (1926, March 6). Suppuration of the shoulder joint: Report of two cases. Journal of the American Medical Association, 86 (10), pp. 686-87.

Barton, J.W. (1929, May 7). Meaning of ‘punch drunk’ given explanation by physician. San Bernardino County Sun CA, p. 6.

Battle Lines Set As Officials Differ On Smoking Report. (1964, Jan. 13). Wilkes-Barre Times Leader PA, p. 1.

Bauer, W.W. (1953, Sept. 25). Better Health: Is football dangerous? Vancouver Province, Canada.

Bauer, W.W. (1954, Oct. 27). Health For Today: Football injuries. Vancouver Province, Canada, p. 7.

Bauer, W.W. (1955, Sept. 12). Today’s Health: What about football? Pittsburgh Sun-Telegraph PA, p. 24.

Bauer, W.W. (1955, Nov. 10). Health For Today: Keeping athletics safe. San Francisco Examiner CA, p. 57.

Baxter, D. (1951, Jan. 2). Socialized medicine. Clovis News-Journal NM, p. 7.

Bearzy, H.J. (1947, Nov. 8). Physical medicine in the prevention and treatment of athletic injuries. Journal of the American Medical Association, 135 (10), pp. 613-16.

Because He Suffered. (1888, Feb. 17). Cincinnati Enquirer OH, p. 5.

Bennett, A.E., & Hunt, H.B. (1933, March). Traumatic encephalitis: Case reports of so-called cerebral concussion with encephalographic findings. Archives of Surgery, 26 (3), pp. 397-406.

Berg, L. (1936, Nov. 25). Something On Your Mind: “Punch drunk.” Brooklyn Eagle NY, p. 14.

Beyer’s Promise to Quit Medical Field Cheats Jail. (1928, Dec. 21). Brooklyn Eagle NY, p. 1.

Big Ears of Crazy Men. (1888, Oct. 25). St. Louis Post-Dispatch MO, p. 7.

Blood-Stained. (1902, Nov. 30). Louisville Courier-Journal KY, p. B1.

Blue Ribbon. (1946, Jan. 23). [Advertisement.] Mansfield News-Journal OH, p. 6.

Boshoff, P.H., & Jokl, E. (1948, May 1). Boxing injuries of the eyes. Archives of Ophthalmology, 39 (5), pp. 643-44.

Bourne, G.C., & Schwab, R.S. (1949, September). Cerebral fat embolism: Report of a case with recovery. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 62 (3), pp. 355-57.

Bowman, K.M., & Blau, A. (1940). Psychotic states following head and brain injury in adults and children. In Brock, S. [Ed.] Injuries of the skull, brain and spinal cord: Neuropsychiatric, surgical, and medico-legal aspects. Williams & Wilkins: Baltimore MD.

Boy’s Neck Broke in Football Game. (1902, Oct. 31). Hopkinsville Kentuckian KY, p. 6.

Brady, W. (1925, March 26). Health Talks: The old lady Hygeia. State Journal, Lansing MI, p. 4.

Brady, W. (1928, June 15). Health Talks: Youth and tobaccoism. Appleton Post-Crescent WI, p. 6.

Brady, W. (1929, Feb. 1). Personal Health Service: For the sake of the children. Hartford Courant CT, p. 10.

Brady, W. (1929, July 7). Sunday Health Talk. Atlanta Constitution GA, p. E20.

Brady, W. (1929, Oct. 25). Personal Health Service: Our neurotic sports. Hartford Courant CT, p. 10.

Brady, W. (1931, Dec. 31). Health Talks: Ha, parents, here’s a hard one. Atlanta Constitution GA, p. 6.

Brady, W. (1934, March 11). How do you like your milk? Brooklyn Eagle NY, p. 52.

Brady, W. (1945, Sept. 13). Your Health: Negligible, eh? Davenport Daily Times IA, p. 14.

Brady, W. (1948, May 5). Personal Health Service: Punch drunk school boys. Elmira Star-Gazette NY, p. 12.

Brady, W. (1949, Dec. 1). Dr. Brady: Questions and answers. Atlanta Constitution GA, p. 23.

Brady, W. (1949, Dec. 5). Your Health and Its Care: Football and youth. Medford Mail Tribune OR, p.7.

Brady, W. (1949, Dec. 17). Personal Health: Doctors and booze. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix, Canada, p. 22.

Brady, W. (1950, March 5). Personal Health: Doctors on the make. Hartford Courant CT, p. 26.

Brady, W. (1950, April 30). How’s Your Health? Newport News Daily Press VA, p. 18.

Brady, W. (1951, May 21). Personal Health: Calling all physical ed instructors. Hartford Courant CT, p. 6.

Brady, W. (1952, April 2). Health Talks: Parents advised to be wary of ‘minor’ sports injuries. State Journal, Lansing MI, p. 17.

Brady, W. (1952, Nov. 27). Child football games cause injury, strain. Los Angeles Times, p. B8.

Brady, W. (1954, Oct. 18). Personal Health Service. Kalispell Daily Inter Lake MT, p. 6.

Brady, W. (1954, Oct. 25). Brady raps football as prep sport. Los Angeles Times CA, p. B4.

Brutality of Football. (1905, Oct. 21). Journal of the American Medical Association, 45 (17), pp. 1251-52.

Busch’s Former Partner at Dances. (1888, April 25). Chicago Tribune IL, p. 5.

Busse, E.W., & Sliverman, A.J. (1952, Aug. 23). Electroencephalograhic changes in professional boxers. Journal of the American Medical Association, 149 (17), pp. 1522-25.

Calls Football a Curse. (1909, Dec. 23). Baltimore Sun MD, p. 10.

Camp on Football Rules. (1903, Jan. 18). Cincinnati Enquirer OH, p. 33.

Camp, W. (1888, Nov. 4). College kickers. Wilkes-Barre Leader PA, p. 6.

Camp, W. [Ed.] (1890). Foot-ball rules and referee’s book: American Intercollegiate Association. A.G. Spalding & Brothers: New York NY.

Camp, W. (1890, April 14). Sporting. Pittsburgh Press PA, p. 4.

Camp. W. (1891, Oct. 10). The best way to win. Indianapolis News IN, p. 11.

Camp, W. (1891, Nov. 29). On defensive play. Brooklyn Eagle NY, p. 12.

Camp, W. (1894). Football facts and figures: A symposium of expert opinion on the game’s place in American athletics. Harper & Brothers Publishers: New York NY.

Camp, W. (1895, Nov. 9). The substitute: A foot-ball story. Indianapolis News IN, p. 11.

Camp, W. (1896, Dec. 14). Is it dangerous? Oshkosh Northwestern WI, p. 6.

Camp, W. [Ed.] (1901). Foot ball rules. American Sports Publishing Company: New York NY.

Camp, W. (1903, Jan. 18). Camp on Football Rules. Cincinnati Enquirer OH, p. 33.

Camp, W. (1919, Oct. 18). Walter Camp’s Inside Football. Fort Wayne Journal-Gazette IN, p. 12.

Camp, W., & DeLand, L.F. (1896). Football. Houghton, Mifflin and Company: Boston, New York.

Cancer-Safe Cigarets Proposed. (1954, July 26). Grand Junction Sentinel CO, p. 1.

Carroll, E.J., Jr. (1936, May). “Punch drunk.” American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 99, pp. 706-12.

Carver, L. (1947, Oct. 23). Fair or Foul. Mattoon Journal Gazette IL, p. 9.

Cause of Brutality in Football. (1894, Dec. 17). Chicago Tribune IL, p. 3.

Chaney, M. (2001). Sports writers, American football, and anti-sociological bias toward anabolic drug use in the sport [MA thesis]. Department of Communication: University of Central Missouri: Warrensburg MO.

Chaney, M. (2008, June 16). Dianabol, The First Widely Used Steroid, Turns 50. New York Daily News.

Chaney, M. (2009). Spiral of Denial: Muscle Doping in American Football. Four Walls Publishing: Warrensburg MO.

Chaney, M. (2009, Jan. 3). Excerpt: ‘Spiral of Denial’ Reveals NFL’s ’Roid Culture. New York Daily News.

Chaney, M. (2011, Jan. 15). Q&A with Dr. Bennet Omalu. TheConcussionBlog.com.

Chaney, M. (2011, Jan. 28). Brain Expert Omalu Wants Longer Rest for Concussed Football Players. PhanaticMag.blogspot.com.

Chaney, M. (2012, Nov. 12). The Tackling Technique Roger Goodell Says Will Make Football Safer. (It Won’t). Slate.com and DeadSpin.com.

Chaney, M. (2012, Dec. 4). Excerpt: Matt Chaney Chases The Ghost of Lyle Alzado. NYDailyNews.com.

Chaney, M. (2014, Oct 3). King Football Infests Institutions, Misleads Public. ChaneysBlog.com.

Chaney, M. (2015, Jan 12). Experts: Football Death Reports Aren’t Valid Epidemiology. ChaneysBlog.com.

Chaney, M. (2015, July 28). The 1890s: Brain Risks Confirmed in American Football. ChaneysBlog.com..

Chaney, M. (2016, Jan 30). 1900-1912: ‘First Concussion Crisis’ for Beloved Football. ChaneysBlog.com.

Chaney, M. (2016, May 11). ‘Heads Up’ Theory, Football Helmets and Brain Disease, 1883-1962. ChaneysBlog.com.

Chaney, M. (2016, May 31). Teddy Roosevelt Loved Football, Except When It Brutalized His Son. Vice.com.

Chaney, M. (2016, Nov 29). ‘Slaughter of The Innocents’: When D.C. Considered Banning High School Football. Vice.com.

Chaney, M. (2016, Dec 21). ‘Safe Football’ Failed in 1880s, Talking Points Lived On. ChaneysBlog.com.

Chaney, M. (2018, Nov. 21). Football Denial Stands Historical and Perpetual, California and Elsewhere. ConcussionInc.net.

Changes Likely in Style of Rugby Football Play. (1903, Jan. 4). St. Louis Republic MO, p. 24.

Chicago Doctor Lauds Press Aid to Medicine. (1924, March 20). Minneapolis Star MN, p. 2.

Cigarette Throat Irritations Similar To Other Types. (1948, Nov. 14). Tampa Bay Times FL, p. 19.

Civil Service Examinations. (1943, Oct. 19). Indiana Gazette, Indiana PA, p. 7.

Clendening, L. (1931, May 31). “Punch drunk” state caused by head injury. Kingsport Times TN, p. 7.

Clendening, L. (1935, April 22). Why do not medics give up tobacco? Quad-City Times, Davenport IA, p. 6.

Clendening, L. (1936, June 9). Diet and Health: Head blow may ruin fighter. Lincoln Star NE, p. 8.

Clendening, L. (1939, April 5). Science, the real detective of today. Monongahela Republican PA, p. 4.

Clendening, L. (1942, Aug. 27). Watch Your Health: Football injuries in high school are highest of all. Oshkosh Northwestern WI, p. 11.

Clendening, L. (1942, Sept. 1). Health and Diet: Chances of football injury. Mansfield News-Journal OH, p. 4.

Clendening, L. (1945, Jan. 2). “Your Mind and Body”: A negative vote on the football question. Naugatuck Daily News CT, p. 4.

Clurman, M.J. (1911, Jan. 7). The American game of football: Is it a factor for good or for evil? Medical Record, 79 (1), p. 18-20.

College Kickers. (1888, Nov. 4). Wilkes-Barre Leader PA, p. 6.

College Notes. (1886, Jan. 11). Philadelphia Inquirer PA, p. 2.

College Notes. (1890, Oct. 1). New Brunswick Times NJ, p. 3.

College President and Prize Fighter Condemn Football. (1905, Nov. 16). Santa Cruz Sentinel CA, p. 9.

Condones Bad Habits. (1903, Feb. 12). Oakland Tribune CA, p. 3.

Considine, B. (1956, Dec. 4). New clinical eye looks at Olympics. Pittsburgh Sun-Telegraph PA, p. 19.

Conway, W.J. (1945, July 11). Chicago medicine men give cures the works. Big Spring Herald TX, p. 6.

Conwell, C. (1957, Sept. 14). Library Named for Clendening. Kansas City Times MO, pp. 1, 15.

Could Small Children be Diverted from Football? (1931, March 27). Greeley Tribune CO, p. 10.

Crain, G.W. (1939, Nov. 25). Case Records Of A Psychologist. Odgen Standard-Examiner UT, p. 3.

Crain, G.W. (1956, April 11). Pregnant mothers advised against smoking of cigarets. Oshkosh Northwestern WI, p. 6.

Crazed by Football. (1899, Nov. 13). Washington Evening Times DC, p. 2.

Crazy from Football. (1906, Oct. 23). Detroit Free Press MI, p. 6.

Crowell, J.F. (1888, Nov. 27). The American game of foot-ball. Raleigh News & Observer NC, p. 1.

Cuddy, J. (1934, Nov. 14). Report shows fewer deaths for grid play. San Bernardino County Sun CA, p. 14.

Current Events. (1874, June 4). Brooklyn Eagle NY, p. 2.

Cutter, I.S. (1936, Sept. 24). Today’s Health Talk: Effects of head blows. Washington Post DC, p. XII.

Daley, G. (1927, Aug. 5). Dayton News OH, p. 35.

Deals a Blow to Football. (1905, Nov. 7). San Francisco Call CA, p. 7.

Death from Football Injuries. (1900, Nov. 16). Deseret Evening News UT, p. 1.

Death Scored Nine Times During the Football Season. (1901, Dec. 1). Boston Post MA, p. 7.

Death was the Tackler. (1897, Oct. 27). New York World NY, p. 5.

Debillier’s Insanity. (1893, Jan. 6). New York Times NY, p. 1.

Defends Football Rules. (1903, Jan. 6). Chicago Inter Ocean IL, p. 6.

Dickson, F.D. (1938, Jan. 8). Injuries of the knee joint: Clinical lecture at Atlantic City session. Journal of the American Medical Association, 110 (2), pp. 122-27.

Dirty Crack. (1946, Oct. 30). Gettysburg Times PA, p. 3.

Doctor Advises Grid Game Care. (1956, Nov. 14). Port Angeles Evening News WA, p. 19.

District Appoints Football Delegate. (1909, Nov. 25). Washington Times DC, p. 4.

Doctor Says Smoke Half Of Cigaret. (1932, Dec. 3). Miami News FL, p. 1.

Doctor Would Ban School Football. (1931, Dec. 6). New York Times NY, p. 25.

Doctors Say Cigarettes Cut Life Span. (1954, June 22). El Paso Times TX, p. 8.

Doctors Take Big Interest In Athletics. (1956, Nov. 21). Brownsville Herald TX, p. 7.

Doctors To Meet In Extra Session. (1938, Aug. 30). Pittsburgh Sun-Telegraph PA, p. 3.

Does Not Fancy the New Rules. (1906, Oct. 7). Louisville Courier-Journal KY, p. 37.

Doughtie, C.W. (1923, Nov. 3). Ruptured spleen with repair and recovery. Journal of the American Medical Association, 81 (18), pp. 1521-22.

Dr. Fishbein Of The AMA Is Arch-Enemy Of Quacks. (1942, Jan. 16). Orangeburg Times and Democrat SC, p. 3.

Dr. Logan Clendening is Praised by Fishbein. (1934, April 3). Minneapolis Star MN, p. 8.

Earles, W.H. (1903, July 18). Necessity for more care in the treatment of skull fractures. Journal of the American Medical Association, 61 (3), pp. 169-72.

Einstein, C. (1948, April 5). Sports At Glance. Connellsville Daily Courier PA, p. 8.

Ethics—Large and Small. (1935, June 11). Camden Morning Post NJ, p. 8.

Experience Is The Best Teacher! (1947, Aug. 25). [Advertisement.] Mansfield News-Journal OH, p. 3.

Famous Referee Judged Insane. (1902, Oct. 16). St. Louis Post-Dispatch MO, p. 14.

Fatalities from Football. (1883, Jan. 6). Glasgow Herald, Scotland, p. 5.

Fauver, E., Thorndike, A., Jr., & Raycroft, J.E. (1933, July). National Collegiate Athletic Association medical handbook for schools and colleges. National Collegiate Athletic Association, Princeton University Press: Princeton NJ.

Favors Game. (1903, Jan. 2). Louisville Courier-Journal KY, p. 7.

Feats of Strength. (1900, Nov. 25). Brought a Yale athlete to the brink of insanity. Cincinnati Enquirer OH, p. 2.

Fishbein, M. [Ed.] (1924, Oct. 19). Tobacco smoking is held non-injurious to health. Louisville Courier-Journal KY, p. 39.

Fishbein, M. [Ed.] (1925, Oct. 12). Your Health. Great Falls Tribune MT, p. 6.

Fishbein, M. (1927, Nov. 20). About Your Health: Athletic hearts object of study. Battle Creek Enquirer MI, p. 9.

Fishbein, M. (1927, Feb 4). Effect of tobacco on digestion held slight. Wisconsin Rapids Tribune WI, p. 6.

Fishbein, M. (1927, Feb. 7). Smoking harms adults little, science declares. Wisconsin Rapids Tribune WI, p. 7.

Fishbein, M. (1927, Feb. 8). How To Keep Well. Danville Bee VA, p. 6.

Fishbein, M. (1927, Feb. 11). Health Service. Columbus Republic IN, p. 2.

Fishbein, M. (1928, Oct. 24). Daily Health Talk: Punches in prize ring often injure brain. Sandusky Star Journal OH, p. 14.

Fishbein, M. (1929, March 6). Cross-country suited to high school boys. Palm Beach Post FL, p. 4.

Fishbein, M. [Ed.] (1931, Dec. 31). Football fatalities. Journal of the American Medical Association, 94 (24), p. 1802.

Fishbein, M. [Ed.] (1932, Jan. 2). The reform of football. Journal of the American Medical Association, 98 (1), pp. 51-52.

Fishbein, M. [Ed.] (1932, March 12). The reform of football. Journal of the American Medical Association, 98 (1), pp. 890-91.

Fishbein, M. (1932, May 3). Your Child’s Health: Child labor remains great health menace to future citizens. Lafayette Advertiser LA, p. 3.

Fishbein, M. [Ed.] (1932, Sept. 3). More about football—and health. Journal of the American Medical Association, 99 (10), p. 834.

Fishbein, M. [Ed.] (1932, Dec. 24). Football fatalities of 1932. Journal of the American Medical Association, 99 (26), pp. 2186-87.

Fishbein, M. (1933, Sept. 14). Your Health. Marshfield News-Herald WI, p. 4.

Fishbein, M. (1933, Oct. 10). Six rules for safety—Medical authorities on athletics set down requirements to guard against injuries in fall sports. Bradford Daily Record PA, p. 2.

Fishbein, M. (1933, Oct. 19). Daily Hints on Health: Keep your helmet on! Manitowac Herald-Times WI, p. 5.

Fishbein, M. (1933, Dec. 19). Your Health. Reading Times PA, p. 6.

Fishbein, M. (1934, Sept. 23). Guard gridsters against infection from bruises. Brownsville Herald TX, p. 4.

Fishbein, M. (1935, April 20). Seek smoking effect on unborn babies. Mount Carmel Item PA, p. 6.

Fishbein, M. (1936, May 27). Your Baby’s Health. Salt Lake Telegram UT, p. 6.

Fishbein, M. (1937, Sept. 18). Your Health. Marshfield News-Herald WI, p. 4.

Fishbein, M. [Ed.] (1937, Oct. 16). The misrepresentations of William Brady. Journal of the American Medical Association, 109 (16), pp.1282-83.

Fishbein, M. (1938, Jan. 4). Family Doctor. Uniontown Evening Standard PA, p. 4.

Fishbein, M. (1939, March 25). The Family Doctor: Effects of smoking studied in scientific way; results vary. Mount Carmel Item PA, p. 2.

Fishbein, M. (1939, Sept. 21). Coaches should watch for concussion, tape ankles, knees of grid players. Manitowac Herald-Times WI, p. 4.

Fishbein, M. (1940, Feb. 21). Internal effect of head blow is a puzzle to medical profession. Wilkes-Barre Evening News PA, p. 10.

Fishbein, M. (1940, Sept. 8). Medicine In The News. Montana Standard, Butte MT, p. 30.

Fishbein, M. (1940, Sept. 17). Medicine in the News: Preventing football injuries. Pittsburgh Sun-Telegraph PA, p. 26.

Fishbein, M.(1941, March 30). Medicine in the News. Montana Standard, Butte MT, p. 18.

Fishbein, M. (1941, Nov. 6). Tobacco effects studied. Pittsburgh Sun-Telegraph PA, p. 22.

Fishbein, M. [Ed.] (1948, July 3). Medical News. Journal of the American Medical Association, 137 (10), pp. 893-96.

Fishbein, M. (1961). Dr. Pepys’ Pages: Personal diary and observations on medical life. Postgraduate Medicine, 29 (1), pp. A150-54.

Fishbein, M. (2007). Papers 1912-1976 [Box 6, Folder 10]. Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library: Chicago IL.

Fishbein Quits as AMA Editor. (1949, Dec. 2). Montgomery Advertiser AL, p. 8.

Foot Ball. (1877, Nov. 27). Brooklyn Eagle NY, p. 1.

Foot Ball And Prize Fighting. (1895, Sept. 26). Greenville Record-Argus PA, p. 4.

Foot Ball Experts Will Amend Rules. (1898, Feb. 13). Philadelphia Times PA, p. 10.

Foot Ball Fatalities. (1908, Dec. 5). Maui News HI, p. 3.

Football. (1899, June 5). Los Angeles Times CA, p. 10.

Football Accidents. (1907, Nov. 18). Salina Journal KS, p. 8.

Football And Development. (1900, Feb. 10). Journal of the American Medical Association, 34 (6), p. 372.

Football And Insanity. (1903, March 8). Salt Lake Tribune UT, p. 20.

Football Armor. (1899, Dec. 21). Crittenden Press, Marion KY, p. 6.

Football Casualties. (1908, Dec. 19). Journal of the American Medical Association, 51 (25), p. 2164.

Football Causes Insanity. (1905, Jan. 15). Decatur Herald IL, p. 7.

Football Committee Faces Camp Ultimatum. (1906, Jan. 7). Brooklyn Eagle NY, p. 38.

Football Dead 14 with the New Rules. (1910, Nov. 20). New York Times NY, p. 2.

Football Fatalities. (1906, Oct. 6). Journal of the American Medical Association, 47 (14), p. 1102.

Football in High Schools Valueless, Doctor Says. (1930, Oct. 29). New York Herald Tribune NY, p. 23.

Football in the Schools. (1903, Dec. 12). Washington Post DC, p. 2.

Football Injuries. (1894, May 8). New York Tribune NY, p. 4.

Football Injuries. (1906, Dec. 6). New Rules for Playing Do Not Eliminate Danger. Coffeyville Journal KS, p. 3.

Football Injury Compels Lawrence Man to Drop Out. Oshkosh Northwestern WI, p. 2.

Football Less Hazardous than Many Other Sports. (1950, Jan. 13). San Bernardino County Sun CA, p. 26.

Football is Abolished by Columbia Committee. (1905, Nov. 29). New York Times NY, p. 1.

Football Notes. (1893, Nov. 8). Topeka Capital KS, p.4.

Football Player Becomes Insane. (1895, Oct. 7). Mount Carmel News PA, p. 3.

Football Player Hurt at Stanford. (1901, Sept. 28). San Francisco Chronicle CA, p. 4.

Football Reform. (1905, Oct. 11). Washington Post DC, p. 25.

Football Shocks Landis. (1905, Oct. 15). Washington Post DC, p. 143.

For Athletics Despite Danger. (1903, Feb. 12). Walter Camp says sports that are not hazardous will make boys milksops. Chicago Tribune IL, p. 5.

For….. The Indianapolis Star Beginning Tomorrow. (1930, Aug. 10). [Advertisement.] Indianapolis Star IN, p. 14.

For Athletics Despite Danger. (1903, Feb. 12). Chicago Tribune IL, p. 5.

For Fair Football. (1900, Aug. 15). Chicago Inter Ocean IL, p. 6.

For Football Game Reform. (1905, Oct. 10). Raleigh Morning Post NC, p. 1.

Geary, M.J. (1892, Dec. 4). Seen by a novice. San Francisco Call CA, p. 8.

Goldenstein, R. (1952, Sept. 5). AMA Journal takes poke at TV horror show effects on health of U.S. children. Blytheville Courier News AR, p. 5.

Gonzales, T.A. (1951, Aug 18). Fatal injuries in competitive sports. Journal of the American Medical Association, 146 (16), pp. 1506-11.

Good Points of Foot Ball. (1888, Dec. 12). Pittsburgh Press PA, p. 7.

Goodman, D.M. (2013, Sept. 30). The legacy of the Fishbein Fellowship. Council of Science Editors, csescienceeditor.org.

Graves, W.W. (1906, Sept. 29). The problem of localization in relation to head injuries. Medical Record, 70 (13), pp. 483-86.

Grid Player Will Get Some Attention. (1947, Jan. 10). Valley Morning Star, Harlingen TX, p. 9.

Gridiron Dangers. (1950, Jan. 8). Central New Jersey Home News, New Brunswick NJ, p. 4.

Harness in Football. (1900, Nov. 12). Fort Wayne Daily News IN, p. 8.

Harvard’s Football Team Beaten Six to Nothing. (1892, Nov. 20). It was a human Aetna. New York World NY, p. 1.

“He Who Hesitates Is Sunk”—If He’s A Referee. (1930, Nov. 9). Boston Globe MA, p. C1.

Health and Hygiene. (1936, Nov. 9). Football and head injuries. Sault Marie Evening News MI, p. 4.

Health Education. (1927, April 30). Montgomery Advertiser AL, p. 4.

‘Health For Today’ Hailed By San Mateo Medical Head. (1953, Feb. 15). San Francisco Examiner CA, p. 34.

Heart Disease, Cancer At Top of U.S. Killers. (1947, May 5). Belvidere Daily Republican IL, p. 1.

Heart Doctor Says A Smoke, Drink Is O.K. (1951, May 23). Dayton News OH, p. 35.

High School Athletics. (1914, Nov. 14). Journal of the American Medical Association, 63 (20), pp. 1765-66.

Hospital Staff Rejects Contract Plan for Workers. (1933, Jan. 17). Philadelphia Inquirer PA, p. 1.

Hughes, E. (1931, Oct. 18). Those ‘punch drunk’ scrimmagers. Brooklyn Eagle NY, p. 31.

Hughston, J.C. (2000, Jan. 1). Sports medicine focues attention on physical fitness. OrthopedicsToday, Helio.com.

Humane Ideas Not Always Popular. (1947, Nov. 7). Catholic Advance, Wichita KS, p. 10.

Improvement in Football Pathology. (1906, Dec 8). Journal of the American Medical Association, 47 (23), pp. 1921-22

Improvement in Yale’s Play. (1897, Nov. 4). Louisville Courier-Journal KY, p. 6.

Indiana University Hospitals, Schools Hold Open House. (1926, May 7). Richmond Palladium-Item IN, p. 13.

Inquiry to Save Busch’s Life. (1888, April 25). Chicago Inter Ocean IL, p. 7.

Insane from a Football Injury. (1899, June 29). Columbus Weekly Advocate KS, p. 6.

Insane from an Injury at Football. (1894, Nov. 25). New York Tribune NY, p. 1.

Insanity Under the Microscope. (1874, July 16). Columbus Republican IN, p. 4.

Irish Trainer Prepared for 1,440 “Knock Outs.” (1933, Sept. 1). Rushville Republican IN, p. 3.

Is Football A Dangerous Sport? (1892, Dec. 16). San Francisco Call CA, p. 8.

Is Football Too Brutal to Play? (1894, Dec. 13). Winnipeg Tribune, Canada, p. 2.

Jackson, Charles O. (1968, March 12). Morris Fishbein: Transcript of an interview. General History of Medicine Oral Series. U.S. National Library of Medicine: Washington DC.

Johnston, A. (1887, Oct. 27). The dangers of foot-ball. [Reprint from Century Magazine.] Waterloo Press IN, p.3.

Journal Not Soap Box, Editor Replies. (1945, July 25). Casper Star-Tribune WY, p. 9.

Just Another One Of Those ‘Smoke’ Dreams. (1946, Dec. 19). Brewton Standard AL, p. 2.

Kemble, R.P. (1937, Feb. 10). Odds and Ends: “Slap happy.” Mount Carmel Item PA, p. 2.

Keen, W.W. (1902, Dec 13). Midshipman Aikin and vivisection [LTE]. Journal of the American Medical Association, 39 (24), p. 1537.

Kletzer, W., Mrs. (1936, April). Physical education and the parent. Journal of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, 7 (4), pp. 230-31.

Knute Knows Best. (1930, Dec. 23). Hamilton Journal News OH, p. 6.

Lake Forest Player is Injured. (1899, Oct. 22). Chicago Tribune IL, p. 22.

Lapin, A.D. (2013). A body of text: Physical Culture and the marketing of mobility. [PhD dissertation.] Kenneth P. Dietrich School of Arts and Sciences, University of Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh PA.

Laugh at the Anti-Football Bill. (1894, Feb. 10). New York World NY, p. 6.

Laurence, W.L. (1949, June 7). A.M.A. Board Unfrocks Fishbein as Its ‘Preacher.’ Louisville Courier-Journal KY, p. 1.

Lee, B. (1945, Dec. 1). With Malice Toward None. Hartford Courant CT, p. 9.

Lee, B. (1949, Dec. 19). With Malice Toward None. Hartford Courant CT, p. 13.

Lewis, G.M. (1956). The American intercollegiate football spectacle, 1869-1917 [PhD dissertation.] Department of Physical Education, University of Maryland: College Park MD.

Local and District News. (1881, Dec. 30). The late Dr. Phillimore. Nottinghamshire Guardian, England, p. 5.

Lundberg, G.D. (2016, Feb. 5). Brain injury in football reaches the tipping point. Medscape.com.

Lundberg, G.D., & Metzner, D. (2016, May 7). How to save American football. TheHealthCareBlog.com.

Lusk, B. (1958, June 29). The Publisher’s Notebook. Huron Daily Plainsman SD, p. 29.

Making It A Game For Gentlemen. (1887, Nov. 27). New York Times NY, p. 10.

Many Doctors From Abroad Rated Inferior. (1957, March 23). Louisville Courier-Journal KY, p. 13.

Martland, H.S. (1928, Oct. 13). Punch drunk. Journal of the American Medical Association, 91(15), pp. 1103-07.

Mathis, M. (1954, Oct. 23). Dr. Morris Fishbein predicts Salk polio vaccine success. Baltimore Sun MD, p. 7.

Maybe It’s Not His Fault. (1933, Jan. 18). [Advertisement.] Binghamton Press and Sun-Bulletin NY, p. 10.

Medical News. (1893, June 1). Buffalo Enquirer NY, p. 5.

Medical Service in Dispute. (1942, Nov. 7). Fairbanks News-Miner AK, p. 5.

Medical Societies Convicted of Anti-Trust Violation. (1941, April 5). Louisville Courier-Journal KY, p. 1.

McGeehan, W.O. (1929, Jan. 29). Down The Line: The strenuous game. New York Herald Tribune NY, p. 25.

Middies Lose in Mighty Struggle. (1904, Nov. 27). Richmond Times Dispatch VA, p. 1.

Millican, K.W. (1906, July 7). Independent medical journalism a necessity for the profession. Medical Record, 70 (1), pp. 4-6.

Millspaugh, J.A. (1937). Dementia pugilistica. U.S. Naval Medical Bulletin, 35, pp. 297-303.

Modern Football. (1890, Nov. 13). New York World NY, p. 3.

Moffatt, J.H. (1909, Dec. 26). Investigation proves injuries in football have been exaggerated. Chicago Inter Ocean IL, p. 17.

Montenigro, P.H., Corp, D.T., Stein, T.D., Cantu, R.C., & Stern, R.A. (2015, March). Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: Historical origins and current perspective. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 11, pp. 309-30.

Moon, W. (1956, Nov. 14). Sport Angles. Asbury Park Press NJ, p. 17.

More Doctors Smoke Camels. (1946, May 17). [Advertisement.] Oakland Tribune CA, p. 2.

More Doctors Smoke Camels Than Any Other Cigarette! (1952, July 21). [Advertisement.] Muncie Press IN, p. 5.

More Hurt on Gridiron Than in the Prize Ring. (1902, Nov. 20). Pittsburgh Press PA, p. 16.

More Kicking Needed. (1893, Dec. 4). Proposed modifications of football. San Francisco Chronicle CA, p. 2.

More Revision Needed. (1907, Nov. 6). Fort Wayne News IN, p. 4.

More Presidential Meddling. (1902, Nov. 16). Detroit Free Press MI, p. A4.

Mr. Walter Camp. (1890, Nov. 29). Winnipeg Tribune, Canada, p. 4.

New Body Lotion Available For Mothers-To-Be. (1954, Oct. 3). Asheville Citizen-Times NC, p. 26.

New Football Headgear. (1903, Aug. 2). Chicago Inter Ocean IL, p. 32.

New Foot-ball Rules. (1887, Oct. 29). St. Louis Post-Dispatch MO, p. 8.

New Rules for Football. (1894, May 15). Salt Lake Herald UT, p. 2.

Newell, B. (1947, Nov. 18). New Haven doctor raps state on grid safety. Hartford Courant CT, p. 16.

News of the Week. (1894, Jan. 27). Medical Record, 45 (4), p. 115.

News of the Week. (1906, March 3). Football through German spectacles. Medical Record, 69 (9), p. 354.

Newton, R. (1934, July 21). Tampa Tribune FL, p. 11.

No Mollycoddles, Says Roosevelt. (1907, Feb. 24). New York Times NY, p. 1.

No More Football. (1909, Nov. 18). Washington Post DC, p. 1.

No Pay for Football Injuries. (1897, Nov. 10). Humeston New Era IA, p. 1.

No Profit In Journals, AMA Claims. (1969, Feb. 27). Dayton Journal Herald OH, p. 7.

Not for Weaklings. (1907, Oct. 25). Scranton Republican PA, p. 7.

Notes From A Football Pressbox. (1939, Nov. 7). Logansport Pharos-Tribune IN, p. 2.

Noted in East Carolina. (1895, Dec. 22). Charlotte Observer NC, p. 5.

Official Urges Doctor on Every Gridiron. (1929, Feb. 8). New York Times NY, p. 25.

Old Football Injury Killed Him. (1897, Nov. 2). Pittsburgh Press PA, p. 5.

Old Harvard’s Place. (1898, Jan. 27). Boston Globe, p. 1.

On the Gridiron. (1897, Nov. 19). Wilkes-Barre Record PA, p. 3.

On the Sidelines with the Sports Editor. (1935, Nov. 2). Oshkosh Northwestern WI, p. 13.

Operating on Dr. Fishbein. (1949, June 9). Hanover Evening News PA, p. 4.

Opstein, K. (1949, Dec. 19). Prepsters too young for grid, medic says. South Bend Tribune IN, p. 15.

Opstein, K. (1949, Dec. 20). Dr. Fishbein defends football in high schools. St. Louis Star and Times MO, p. 18.

Oriard, M. (1993). Reading football: How the popular press created an American spectacle. University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill NC.

Osnato, M., & Giliberti, V. (1927, August). Postconcussion neurosis-traumatic encephalitis: A conception of postconcussion phenomena. Archives of Neurological Psychology, 18 (2), pp. 181-214.

Over Work and Health. (1904, June 9). Washington Post DC, p. 3.

Paragraphic Punches. (1897, Nov. 24). Chicago Inter Ocean IL, p. 6.

Pearson, D. (1961, July 18). Washington merry-go-round. San Meteo Times CA, p. 15.

Pennsylvania Favors a Change. (1893, Dec. 10). New York World NY, p. 12.

People and Events. (1895, Feb. 14). Chicago Inter Ocean IL, p. 6.

Perkins, J.W. (1896, April 11). The mechanism and diagnosis of traumatic cerebral lesions. Journal of the American Medical Association, 26 (15), pp. 708-15.

Personal And General. (1874, May 16). Rutland Daily Globe VT, p. 1.

Platt, L.P. (1953, Aug. 24). More than Fifty Libraries Here Store Knowledge of Experts in Every Field. Kansas City Times MO, p. 26.

Plenty of Gore (1893, Jan. 2). St. Louis Post-Dispatch MO, p. 6.

Polo and Football. (1879, July 9). Brooklyn Eagle NY, p. 1.

‘Punch Drunk’ Cure Sought. (1933, Jan. 27). Altoona Tribune PA, p. 7.

Punch-Drunk Football Stars! (1937, Sept. 29). [Advertisement.] South Bend Tribune IN, p. 14.

‘Punch Drunk’ May Apply in Other Sports. (1928, Oct. 22). Bismarck Tribune SD, p. 1.

Pugilism and Insanity. (1891, Jan. 6). Jackson Clarion-Ledger MS, p. 2.

President’s Busy Day in Boston and in Cambridge. (1907, Feb. 24). Boston Globe MA, p. 1.

Princeton is Well Re-enforced. (1893, Nov. 20). Chicago Inter Ocean IL, p. 4.

Princeton Wins Again. (1886, Nov. 14). New York Sun NY, p. 2.

Prison Journey of Johnny Hawkins Halted on Train by Order of Superior Judge Fricke. (1929, Jan. 5). Los Angeles Times CA, p. 2.

Quin Continues Football Fight. (1902, Dec. 28). Saint Paul Globe MN, p.8.

Ready for the Great Struggle. (1893, Nov. 30). New York Times NY, p. 3.

Red & White. (1938, June 9). [Advertisement.] Warren Times Mirror PA, p. 12.

Reddy, B. (1949, Aug. 25). Keeping Posted. Syracuse Post-Standard NY, p. 12.

Regulation of College Sport. (1914, Jan. 11). New York Times NY, p. 25.

Report Links Lung Cancer, Chain Smoking. (1952, April 23). Asheville Citizen-Times NC, p. 8.

Rice, A. (1904, Jan. 17). Varsity games belong on campus. San Francisco Chronicle CA, p. 29.

Richards, E.L. (1894, October). The football situation. Popular Science Monthly, 45, pp. 722-33.

Roosevelt Home Life. (1903, Jan. 25). Washington Post DC, p. 14.

Roosevelt in New Crusade. (1905, Oct. 10). Chicago Tribune IL, p. 1.

Roosevelt in Red Robe. (1910, May 27). Baltimore Sun MD, p. 2.

Roosevelt, T. (1893, Dec. 23). The value of athletic training. Harper’s Weekly, 37.

Roosevelt, T. (1894, Dec. 18). [Personal correspondence to Henry Childs Merwin Roosevelt.] Washington DC.

Roosevelt, T. (1903, Oct. 4). [Personal correspondence to Theodore Roosevelt, Jr.] Washington DC.

Rules for a Manly Sport. (1883, Nov. 24). New York Times NY, p. 4.

Ryan, A.J. (1956, Nov. 17). The Olympic Games: Guest editorial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 162 (12), p. 1160

Safer Football. (1906, Nov. 27). Hutchinson News KS, p. 2.

Safer Football is Aim of Experts. (1909, Dec. 22). Bismarck Tribune ND, p. 10.

Says Knife Can Cure Insanity. (1908, Feb. 29). Sea Coast Echo, Bay St. Louis MS, p. 3.

Schaller, W.F. (1939, Nov. 11). After-effects of head injury: The post-concussion state (concussion, traumatic encephalopathy) and the post-traumatic psychoneurotic state (psychoneurosis, hystera): A study in differential diagnosis. Journal of the American Medical Association, 113 (20), pp. 1779-1785

Schatz, W. (1985, Jan. 6). Pacheco replies to AMA call for ban on boxing. Southtown Star, Chicago IL, p. 57.

Scholl, A.J. (1928, Aug. 25). Primary Adenocarcinoma of the epididymis: Report of a case. Journal of the American Medical Association, 91 (8), pp. 560-64.

Scholl, A.J. (1944, April 15). Injuries to the kidney. Journal of the American Medical Association, 124 (16), pp.1110-16.

School Personnel To Attend Annual Held Meeting. (1952, Sept. 18). Brookville Democrat IN, p. 12.

Scrimmages Harmful to Team, Michigan State Coach Asserts. (1931, Oct. 17). New York Times NY, p. 18.

Scully Claims that Football Changes Players into ‘Stumble Backs,’ Half-Wits. (1937, Sept. 29). Columbia Spectator, New York NY, p. 3.

Season’s Football Injuries. (1903, Jan. 7). Pittsburgh Press PA, p. 8.

Selected… (1946, Dec. 23). Kokomo Tribune IN, p. 6.

Shopping With Susan. (1933, Oct. 4). [Advertisement.] Brooklyn Eagle NY, p. 13.

Short Lengths. (1910, Nov. 4). Washington Herald DC, p. 8.

Shurley, J.P., & Todd, J.S. (2012, September). Boxing lessons: An historical review of Chronic Head Trauma in Boxing and Football. Kinesiology Review, 1, pp. 170-184.

Since Legislation has been Aimed at Foot Ball. (1897, Dec. 24). Crawfordville Gulf Coast Breeze FL, p. 6.

Sixty-Two Colleges for Safer Football. (1905, Dec. 29). Harrisburg Independent PA, p. 4.

Soldiers and Football. (1909, Nov. 19). Pittsburgh Post PA, p. 6.

Solons Hear Doctor Urge Safe Smoking. (1957, July 24). Newport News Daily Press VA, p. 24.

Sporting Record. (1901, April 5). Los Angeles Times CA, p. 4.

Sports And Pastimes. (1876, Nov. 20). Brooklyn Eagle NY, p. 3.

State News. (1877, April 14). Hillsdale Standard MI, p. 1.

State News. (1879, Oct. 10). Mattoon Gazette IL, p. 1.

Stephens, R. (1923, March 31). Fracture of the spine of the tibia. Journal of the American Medical Association, 80 (13), pp. 905-06.

Stevens, M.A., & Phelps, W.M. (1933). The control of football injuries. A.S. Barnes & Company: New York NY.

Stewart, Harry Eaton MD (1920, April 3). The treatment of injuries to athletes. Journal of the American Medical Association, 74 (14), pp. 947-48.

Sullivan, P. (1943, March 17). The Low Down. San Francisco Examiner CA, p. 21.

Swear to Improve Game. (1905, Oct. 12). Minneapolis Journal MN, p. 8.

Swords and Gloves. (1930, May 30). Brooklyn Eagle NY, p. 16.

Taft and Eliot Back Tackle of President on Football. (1905, Oct. 11). Chicago Inter Ocean IL, p. 2.

The A.M.A. And Sports Injuries. (1956, Nov.17). Journal of the American Medical Association, 162 (12), pp. 1160-61.

The A.M.A. On Cigarettes And Ads. (1948, Nov. 14). Des Moines Register IA, p. 58.

The Brain of Insane Persons. (1871, Oct. 14). Placer Herald CA, p. 1.

The Costs of Football. (1894, Jan. 29). Boston Globe MA, p. 4.

The Dangers in Competitive College Athletics. (1903, April 11). Journal of the American Medical Association, 40 (15), pp. 992-93

The Deadly Pigskin. (1902, Dec. 13). Atlanta Constitution GA, p. 6.

The Doctors’ Slow Response. (1949, May 23). St. Louis Post-Dispatch MO, p. 14.

The Faults at Football. (1893, Nov. 27). New York Sun NY, p. 6.

The Football Championship. (1882, Nov. 30). New York Tribune NY, p. 2.

The Football Fatalities and Injuries of 1903. (1904, Jan. 30). Journal of the American Medical Association, 42 (5), p. 316.

The Football Mortality. (1902, Dec. 6). Journal of the American Medical Association, 39 (23), pp. 1464-65.

The Foot-ball Result. (1889, Nov. 10). Philadelphia Times PA, p. 16.

The Gridiron. (1897, Oct. 2). Lincoln Courier NE, p. 3.

The Milk That Rings The Bell! (1950, Jan. 15). [Advertisement.] Miami News FL, p. 45.

The Opposition to Football. (1903, Nov. 10). Canonsburg Daily Notes PA, p. 2.

The Pathology of Athletics. (1907, Nov. 2). Journal of the American Medical Association, 49 (18), pp. 1531-32.

The Physical Features of Insanity. (1871, Nov. 6). York Daily PA, p. 2.

The Rugby “Scrumpox.” (1896, March 4). New Orleans Times-Picayune LA, p. 9.

The Sporting World. (1898, Nov. 9). Logansport Pharos-Tribune IN, p. 7.

The Sports of the Day. (1890, Nov. 11). New York World NY, p. 3.

The Strenuous College Football (1902, Nov. 1). Medical Record, 16 (18), pp. 699-700.

This Game Will Show. (1895, Nov. 2). Chicago Inter Ocean IL, p. 4.

This Week’s News. (1899, Oct. 24). Newport Mercury RI, p. 5.

Thursday—Friday—Saturday. (1968, March 14). [Advertisement.] Nashville Tennessean TN, p. 53.

Tigers Win Great Game. (1899, Nov. 26). Chicago Tribune IL, p. 17.

To Award the Championship to Yale. (1888, Dec. 1). New York Tribune NY, p. 10.

To Drop Cigaret And Liquor Advertisements In The AMA Journal. (1953, Nov. 9). Neenah News-Record WI, p. 2.

To Make Football Less Brutal. (1894, Jan. 2). Kansas City Gazette KS, p. 3.

Topics of The Times. (1905, Dec. 28). No experts need apply. New York Times NY, p. 8.

Training for Football. (1899, Oct. 29). Detroit Free Press MI, p. C3.

Trevor, G. (1925, Feb. 4). Centre College’s famous tackle may yet wear Dempsey’s crown. Brooklyn Eagle NY, p. 19.

Trial of Charles E. Goodwin, For Assault with Intent to Kill. (1846, March 28). Baltimore Sun MD, p. 1.

Trial of Spreckels. (1885, Jan. 4). San Francisco Chronicle CA, p. 5.

“Unnecessary Roughness” Defined. (1888, Dec. 2). New York Times NY, p. 5.

Trumble, W. (1932, Jan. 23). Belvidere Daily Republican IL, p. 3.

Urges Safe Grid Play. (1950, Jan. 15). Salt Lake Tribune UT, p. 9.

Value of Vivisection to Brain Surgery. (1902, Dec 13). Journal of the American Medical Association, 39 (24), p. 1530.

Vidmer, R. (1939, Nov. 19). Down In Front: Literary section. New York Herald Tribune NY, p. B8.

Virginia Bruce. (1935, Jan. 30). [Advertisement.] Harrisburg News PA, p. 18.

Walter Camp Favors New Rules (1894, Jan. 20). Chicago Inter Ocean IL, p. 6.

Walter Camp Gives Some Points in Foot Ball. (1891, Nov. 29). Brooklyn Eagle NY, p. 12.

Walter Camp Says Yale Played Satisfactorily. (1910, Oct. 24). Salt Lake Tribune UT, p. 7.

Watterson, J.S. (2000). College football: History, spectacle, controversy. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore MD.

We Once Thought. (1902, Dec. 30). Caruthersville Democrat MO, p. 1.

Weldon, G. (1947, July 4). ‘Pass another law’ faction will seek to outlaw boxing. Catholic Advance, Wichita KS, p. 4.

We’re On Our Way. (1940, Nov. 8). [Advertisement.] Tampa Times FL, p. 15.

Wesleyan in the Rear. (1888, Nov. 30). New York Times NY, p. 8.

What a Player Says. (1905, Dec. 14). Indianapolis Star IN, p. 8.

White, F.A. (1953, Dec. 8). The Hoosier Day: Most Hoosiers ignore cigarette furor. Franklin Evening Star IN, p. 1.

Whitwell Still Missing. (1903, May 7). Oshkosh Northwestern WI, p. 1.

Why Go Without Coffee. (1931, Dec. 11). [Advertisement.] Honolulu Star-Bulletin HI, p. 11.

Why Stars Fall. (1934, Nov. 6). Albany Democrat-Herald GA, p. 4.

Wines, F.H. (1895, Dec. 1). Cure for madness. New Orleans Times-Picayune LA, p. 27.

Word Comes All the Way. (1899, Dec. 25). Omaha Bee NE, p. 4.

Wrightington of Harvard. (1894, Nov. 28). Buffalo Evening News NY, p. 34.

Yale Crushed by Harvard. (1901, Nov. 24). Washington Times DC, p. 1.

Yale vs. Harvard. (1890, Nov. 18). Pittsburgh Post PA, p. 6.

Young, D. (1947, Oct. 5). Write Away: Consider the sport boxing. Chapel Hill Daily Tar Heel NC, p. 2.

Your Health. (1936, July 6). Monongahela Daily Republican PA, p. 2.

Your Health. (1937, Sept. 16). Released by the Delaware County Medical Society. Delaware County Times, Chester PA, p. 9.

Your Health. (1939, April 8). Released by the Delaware County Medical Society. Delaware County Times, Chester PA, p. 10.

Your Throat Fresher. (1943, March 4). [Advertisement.] Kingsport Times TN, p. 3.