Today’s football officials like NFL commissioner Roger Goodell tout their safety measures as new, including Heads Up “technique” for headless hitting—but historical news and medical literature tell a different story
Brain Injury in American Football: 130 Years of Knowledge and Denial
Part Three in a Series
By Matt Chaney, ChaneysBlog.com
Posted Wednesday, May 11, 2016
Copyright ©2016 by Matthew L. Chaney
II. 1883-1906: Anti-Butting Rule, ‘Head Up’ for Safer Football
III. 1909-1915: Open Game Spurs High Tackling, Call for ‘Heads Up’
IV. 1920s: ‘Punch Drunk’ Questions, An Answer by Martland
V. 1930s: CTE Evidence, Debate Cast Football as Causal Suspect
VI. 1940: Plastic Helmet Panacea, Doctors Coin CTE Term
VII. 1962: Reselling Anti-Concussion Helmets and Heads Up
This post is dedicated to Donnovan Hill, 18, who died today in his homestate California, a mighty young man
Controversy overtook American football again by 1960, reigniting debate and recommendations for the collision sport. A scourge of brain and spinal injuries threatened football’s standing, particularly at thousands of schools and youth leagues.
Football boasted an estimated 2.5 million players, including a million prepubescent kids. The American Medical Association wanted sideline doctors at games, and some member physicians labeled tackle football as inappropriate for children.
“We have itsy-bitsy leagues of all descriptions, and we don’t have to like them,” said Dr. Robert R. MacDonald, of Pittsburgh, speaking with Time magazine. “The overwhelming opinion among physicians is against contact sports for elementary and junior high school students.”
“Children are not little men,” said another doctor, unidentified, speaking at an AMA meeting in Washington, D.C. “Cutting down the field and changing the rules doesn’t make football a kid’s sport.”
Health writer Dr. William Brady condemned football for juveniles and insinuated most medical professionals stood by silently. “With almost no exception, physicians, orthopedic surgeons, and physical education instructors who are not afraid to be counted say football is a grown man’s game and not a game for growing boys,” Brady declared in his national newspaper column. “It is dangerous enough for college or university men.”
American football had withstood crisis before, including for “concussion” or traumatic brain injury, TBI of varied description. But after World War II the public cringed over player collisions in hard-shell helmets, and scrutiny fell upon football’s growth sector of grade-school and “peewee” leagues. In 1956 the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended no tackle football for boys until high school.
Plastic helmets had been released commercially during the war, a technical collaboration between football and military that apparently changed collision risk on the gridiron. A review of football fatalities from 1947 to 1959 found prime causation shifting away from abdominal bleeding and infection to damages of the brain and neck.
Football was compelled to respond, along with associate enterprises of sports medicine and helmet manufacturing. This unofficial alliance shared profit synergy and motive to expand football, especially among Baby Boomer children, while trying to alleviate casualties and answer critics.
Football officials and associates—including many doctors, AMA members—acknowledged disability and death could never be eliminated, even for kids. But they promised “safer football” that reduced casualties to an unspecified minimum, and their ideas poured forth, disseminated by news media who questioned little for concept validity, reliability or feasibility.
The 1960s helmets would prevent concussion, finally, declared the “football experts.” Anti-TBI models had failed since 1899, starting with patent sole-leather, but now the experts touted polycarbonate plastic shells, rigid facemasks, interior liners and padded covers. They extolled space-age helmet gadgetry, transistor sensors to measure g-forces of headshots, for the all-out research mission of football safety.
Football organizers, coaches, game doctors and academics spoke of rule changes and headless hitting, based in “proper coaching” for safe blocking, tackling, and running. Helmet “spearing” and facemask butting were denounced, and in 1962 the college coaches association emphasized “heads up” form for players—anti-butting theory already applied in American football, unsuccessfully, for 79 years.
1883-1906: Anti-Butting Rule, ‘Head Up’ For Safer Football
American athletics expanded along with industry in the 19th century, booming after the Civil War, and sport casualties became a national health problem. Injuries to head and neck led every mainstream sport to ban “butting,” but in tackle football the policy was inapplicable among forward-colliding players.
Rules of American football, based on rugby, evolved to set a line of scrimmage between opposing teams, designate ball possession for one side at a time, and loss of possession for failure to advance five yards in three downs. Blocking lines formed, disallowed in rugby, and ramming became prevalent in American football, with injurious collisions reported routinely by newspapers, especially of the “rush line.”
In 1883 the athlete-managed Intercollegiate Football Association [IFA] outlawed butting, defined as Striking a man with the shoulder or head. Problems rose immediately, challenging chief rulemaker Walter Camp for his multi-interests of football—he also refereed games, coached the Yale team, wrote for publishers. America recognized Camp, a 24-year-old Yale graduate and former player, as preeminent authority of “foot ball.”
Referees like Camp could do little to enforce anti-butting in football’s daring runs and thrilling collisions demanded by crowds of spectators. Referees only made cursory calls against head-on strikes, citing the most flagrant violations, and the inconsistency ignited controversy when penalties affected victory or defeat.
Trouble struck late in a game of 1885, when Lehigh center Ross Pierce was ejected for butting a Lafayette player, leading to game forfeit. “Lehigh claimed that this was an unjust decision,” reported The Wilkes-Barre Times. ”The Lehigh faculty ordered the men off the field, whereupon the referee [W.C. Posey], as compelled by the rules, gave the game to Lafayette.”
Elsewhere, Yale was notorious as a butting team, and Coach Camp’s affinity for head-knocking play reflected in his performance as field referee. Camp conspicuously ignored the violation while refereeing a game of Harvard versus Princeton, which The New York Sun described as “a contest in butting and wrestling” highlighted by “battering ram” hits.
Terrible injuries piled up for American football, including for unrestrained “slugging,” fist punches. Concussion of the brain occurred nationwide, per press reports, along with deaths from cerebral and spinal damage, and rulemakers caught ridicule, particularly since most doubled as inept referees like Camp. The IFA committee promised strict rules enforcement in 1887, announcing addition of an umpire to help the referee in a game, and instructing team captains to police field behavior.
Officials analyzed collision contact in hope of eliminating dangerous “high tackling.” Coaches and football-friendly professors penned how-to layouts on safe tackling published in newspapers with illustrations. Players were instructed to strike with shoulder and chest while keeping head to one side, out of harm’s way. “Foul tackling” was defined as hits below the waist and above neckline. But nothing changed and rulemakers acted again, sanctioning blocking and lowering the legal tackle zone to above the knees. Coaches preached “low tackling” with “eyes open” to avoid head blows from churning thighs and feet.
Contact theory and policy could not alter the necessary, inherent ramming of football, and Camp absorbed flak over his officiating crew’s debacle at the 1888 Thanksgiving game between Wesleyan and the University of Pennsylvania.
“Only one man was disqualified,” observed The New York Tribune, “when there should have been a half dozen.” The New York Times, under its sarcastic headline “Not A Man Killed,” reported “both teams endeavored to find out which possessed the most force as battering rams, and they were ramming away most cheerfully when time was called at 4:45, just as it was growing too dark to see.”
Camp responded to the New York press, laying blame for the bloody contest onto players of Penn and Wesleyan, alleging they failed to “tackle properly.” His IFA rules committee huddled further, dropping the term “butting” from code in official printings of 1890, with the edition edited by Camp and published by his business associates of Spalding equipment company.
American football’s first rule specifying ramming was gone, and Camp proclaimed headshots legal except when a tackler draped a runner’s neck, “throttling” or choking him. Indeed, Camp’s Yale teams capitalized on attacking “like human pile-drivers,” stated a national story. Likewise, for college teams that Camp advised on California visits, “The head or skull of a contestant is quite frequently called into service,” reported The San Francisco Call.
Yale stood peerless for winning football and most recently for revolutionizing blocking in “holes,” sending men through the line to clear way for explosive ball-carriers. Yale players were proficient in head-butting defenders to advance up-field, raved journalists and game insiders. “Yale’s rush line was too strong for Princeton. It was like a battering ram,” newspapers reported of the 1890 game on Thanksgiving.
Brain casualties were acceptable for Camp, but likewise for all football officials and fans, or the game could not exist. Newspapers of the Gay Nineties commonly reported concussion of the brain in football, among descriptions of TBI incidents from New York to the Hawaiian Islands. Besides “knockout,” publicized symptoms of players included headache, memory loss, nausea, balance dysfunction, personality change and mood swings.
Medical specialists treated TBI casualties of early football for all degrees of severity, down to diagnosing “slight concussion” through clinical criteria recognized for decades. “Cerebral concussion with persistent symptoms was described by Boyer in 1822, Astley Cooper in 1827, and Dupuytren in 1839,” observed Dr. Randolph W. Evans in 1994, reviewing the literature timeline.
Physicians of the 1890s could recognize TBI in football players, acute symptoms such as amnesia and violent behavior, but there existed no validated treatment nor reliable injury management. Conservative approach dictated rest and isolation for concussed football players, and for some cases doctors urged retirement from the sport—medical opinion prone to dispute by coaches and trainers. Some doctors believed concussed football players could die of brain hemorrhage when returned to contact too quickly.
Moreover, given medicine’s experience with railroad accidents and warfare of industrial artillery, many experts believed brain disease could result from impacts and jarring of any source. Thus collision football posed obvious risk for cerebral trauma and disorder, those “nervous conditions” already known in the courts as “railway brain” and traumatic insanity. Pathologists utilizing microscopic autopsy found tiny lesions in brain tissue, “a fracture of the mysterious network of filaments… essential to normal mental activity,” prisons expert Frederick Howard Wines wrote in 1895. “A lesion may be compared to a melted fuse in an electric lighting system.”
Medical Record, a journal in Philadelphia, called for abolishing football “productive of the greatest variety of surgical injuries to every part of the body.” The journal editorialized about tone deafness of society for football casualties. “Short of actual death on the field, not much account is taken of the hundreds of young men who are oftentimes injured for life as the result of the rough-and-tumble methods of the match.”
The football-adoring public ignored medical literature and opinion to cheer the athletic bashing on fields. An Iowa newspaper hyped imagery of ramming heads—like future NFL television graphics, clashing helmets—for the opening of college football in 1895. “The Cornell (Mt. Vernon) College foot-ball team will be here next Saturday… to butt heads and tangle limbs and scramble for the ball with the U.I.U. team,” heralded The Fayette County Leader.
Football coaches, trainers, and team physicians surely grasped TBI danger but sought to sustain their lucrative sport, not end it for irremovable forward-colliding. And head-ramming typically influenced victory for which team did it better, so successful coaches beyond Yale taught this attack—especially when all of football counted on emerging headgear for neutralizing injury threat.
“There is no use in exposing a man’s head to bruises which the modern football harness largely prevents…,” noted The Chicago Daily Tribune, “the protection of nose guards, ear pads, and the various devices in use make him feel more secure from hurt.” The newspaper observed a “carefully harnessed” team at University of Chicago, the powerful Maroons of coach Amos Alonzo Stagg.
Stagg had starred as a “butting” player at Yale and the philosophy continued for teams he coached. Stagg said he taught the Maroons safe “low tackling” but they were slow to learn. Rather, Stagg’s players aimed “for a man’s head,” reported The Chicago Inter Ocean.
Glenn “Pop” Warner coached at the government Carlisle Institute in Pennsylvania, for young American Indians, and his teams thrived on trick plays and butting throughout the field. The reputation preceded Carlisle on a West Coast trip in 1899, with The San Francisco Chronicle’s reporting:
Dash and unity describe the Indians’ style of play. The backs all crouch like sprinters on the mark, and are off… The linesmen tear forward the instant the ball is snapped, and seem trained to jump through and break up the opposing play before it is well started. [Jonas] Metoxen, the full-back, rated the greatest line-bucker on an American gridiron this season, smashes forward head down, low and with terrific force…
Butting was no blissful indulgence for football officials, however, as predictable brain and spine casualties continued through “brutality” reform hyped by Camp from 1894 to 1897. The initial helmet models of rubber then leather already proved no remedy for TBI, so officials kept pushing theory of headless contact, promising to teach players.
“The best way to learn tackling is with a dummy with head thrown to one side; that saves your head,” commented Dr. F.C. Armstrong, coach of Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, for his how-to article in newspapers. But Armstrong acknowledged the game’s frenetic action could not be choreographed. Often the tackler had to halt his foe however necessary, “and in doing this you may have to overlook the rule about keeping the head to one side,” the coach advised. “The softest place to put it is in the other man’s stomach. That makes a pretty tackle, too.”
But within a few years Pratt Institute scrapped football because of the incorrigible violence, during football season of 1906. Administrators cited brain injury as particularly incompatible for the educational environment, for ethics and practical purposes.
Supposedly the game had been cleansed of brutality for “open play” rules instituted after presidential invention by Theodore Roosevelt, but Pratt officials disagreed. “Yes, we have dropped football,” J. Martin Voorhees, director of physical education at the Brooklyn college, told The Daily Eagle. “We find that the game has been brutalized to such an extent that a player has to be practically a prize fighter to endure the knocks.
“That was our experience at Princeton a few weeks ago. We were beaten 27 to 0, but it was not the defeat that came as hard as the breaking of bones and other knocks that were dealt out to us, and I want to say that it was not by unfair methods either, but by football as it is insisted upon today by those who framed the new rules.
“Why, we have today a boy who has concussion of the brain as the result of that contest,” Voorhees continued. “And he is not out of danger yet. That is only one of the cases. There are several others, and I hold the new rules are responsible. It was put up to the committee last night and we simply decided to abolish the game.”
1909-1915: Open Game Spurs High Tackling, Call for ‘Heads Up’
In years following the football reform led by Teddy Roosevelt, recorded injuries dwindled on the team at Harvard, his alma mater, but that was an exception.
Most outlets reported negligible results while ferocity of football collisions apparently heightened—and concussions of the brain increased—for the “open game.” The charged-up field of forward passes, outside runs and sweep blocks caused brutal smashups in freer space, for less “mass” formations to clog and slow traffic. “High tackling” was blamed for numerous casualties.
“The revised rules of the game have not fulfilled the hopes of their framers,” editorialized The Waterloo Press in Indiana, “the speed and combination plays have proved almost as hazardous.”
“Has Football Reform Failed?” posed The Harrisburg Courier of Pennsylvania, stating “not even the football rule makers can wipe out the bone breaking features of the game by substituting one kind of danger for another.” In Philadelphia, students of a medical college voted to ban the football program after a player died of brain hemorrhage. “SEASON JUST CLOSED MOST DISASTROUS IN HISTORY OF FOOTBALL: 29 MEN KILLED,” headlined The Topeka Daily Capital on Thanksgiving weekend in the Midwest, 1909.
A movement opposed boys football in high schools and “midget” leagues, led by doctors and medical journals, but the naysayers also included NCAA officials, college coaches, grid stars and university presidents. Some lawmakers moved to ban juvenile football in Indiana, New York City, Boston, West Orange, N.J., more places. Former President Roosevelt supported boys football but admitted reform had fallen short, saying most schools lacked supervision and he wished the game were “less homicidal.”
High schools in the nation’s capital banned hits above neckline and the forward pass: “For Safer Football,” headlined The Washington Herald. Nationwide, officials discussed eliminating kickoffs, barring quarterback runs, penalizing “flying” tackles and blocks. Coaches everywhere reemphasized shoulder tackling and blocking.
“Heads up” contact would protect players, declared The Asbury Park Press, reviving the familiar theory:
It is to be hoped that if football retains its hold upon the American heart that “butting” may be so modified as to preserve the college young man’s skull for future and perhaps more laudable uses. In any event “tackle” with heads up should be substituted for “tackle” with heads down in the football contest. Athletes may get along with broken noses and gradual elimination of front teeth but the skull is valuable and rules should be made to hold it intact if possible.
College rulemakers took another turn at their reform dance in 1912, without addressing headshots. Forward passing was fully sanctioned, legalized from anywhere behind the scrimmage line, for any length of throw, and the playing field was set at regulation 100 yards complemented by 10-yard “end zones” for touchdown receptions. The measures were taken for both player safety and spectator enjoyment, according to the NCAA committee.
Protective equipment was also advancing, officials declared. Illinois coach Bob Zuppke produced a new helmet “so designed that the protection comes at all points where a blow might wreak havoc,” newspapers stated.
But one NCAA committeeman questioned safer football, the official pledge since Roosevelt’s intervention. “I am in doubt as to whether the game is safer than it was in years past,” said Jonas Babbitt, rulemaker from Haverford College, “but public opinion seems to hold that it is safer.”
Football’s dark side continued to confront schools, doctors, police, courts and unfortunate families, especially for brain injury and disorder linked to the game. Psychosis engulfed a promising young man in eastern Pennsylvania, Raymond Yerger, for injuries believed to have begun in school football, according to newspapers of the period.
The well-liked Yerger, only child of Morris and Sallie Yerger, part of a larger local clan, excelled in athletics and academics at Allentown High. For Thanksgiving in 1910, Yerger led senior football players in organizing a train excursion to their final game at rival Reading. Two hundred AHS faithful paid $1.10 each for train fare, embarking on a holiday extravaganza to culminate that night with a dance back in Allentown.
At Reading the football contest was rough, and Allenville lost in both score and injury count. Several Allenville players were carried off, including star halfback Ray Yerger, suffering neural effects from a kick to the head. Yerger was diagnosed with “slight concussion” and returned home to Allentown, missing the dance but resurfacing a few nights later to play church basketball. Yerger graduated high school as an honors student, accepted a bookkeeping job, and continued playing sports other than football.
For a few years Yerger remained active in his community and church, and employed, although increasingly subject to mental “spells” and “aberrations,” as family and friends would later recall. A baseball beaning on his head aggravated symptoms around 1913. Yerger became morose, paranoid, reclusive, avoiding friends for suspicion they were “making fun” of him, he lamented to parents.
Then a severe episode turned violent for Yerger at home, scaring his mother and father who struggled themselves to make sense of son’s deterioration. Physically strong, mentally ill, the 22-year-old raged and tossed furniture, threatening to kill his father. Police arrived and placed him in custody. It was holiday season, four years since his football trauma at Reading.
Authorities committed Yerger to Rittersville state hospital for allegedly attempting murder of the father. Yerger reportedly underwent psychosurgery to “cure” his disease, and after one year in the facility he snuck to a bathroom and committed suicide, hanging himself with a towel. Young Raymond Yerger’s funeral was “largely attended” in Allentown, per a report, and he was buried at St. Stephen’s Lutheran Church, two weeks before Christmas of 1915. Family and friends would always blame football in the tragedy.
1920s: ‘Punch Drunk’ Questions, An Answer by Martland
During the First World War, U.S. military bases trained soldiers in football, indoctrinating thousands for the game beyond those with previous experience. A single camp might host dozens of football games in a day, and at war’s end soldiers came home eager for the civilian gridiron as players, coaches, trainers, doctors and boosters. “World War I provided the new football [passing attack] with a timely and powerful weapon to drive it into the hearts and minds of the American public,” observed historian John Sayle Watterson in 2000. Automobile proliferation, urbanization and partying also juiced game popularity.
Football permeated America in the 1920s, raising concrete stadiums in many communities and reaching every pocket of society. Teams were established in the remotest regions, enlisting boys for school and midget football, ever younger in age, and men to fill local rosters.
Football’s public health issue followed in kind, spreading along, affecting every level to grassroots. Issues of college football posed sexier headlines for newspapers, revelations of “professionalism” and academic corruption at major universities, but the game’s everyday problem remained violence and casualties of collisions. Publicized annual death tolls reached 20 again, however invalid the numbers, and rekindled debate.
“High tackling” haunted football for injuries to brain and neck, as since the 1880s, and Harvard leaders proposed to outlaw forward passing once again. More old ideas re-circulated. After the 1925 season a group of eastern coaches demanded anti-butting again be mandated, just finally enforced, and football experts took another look at field contact, promising safer colliding. Coaches and officials pushed “head up” theory for low tackling, again, but there was a new twist, talk of upright hitting with head held aside.
At least one newspaper scoffed, The Altoona Tribune, commenting on New Year’s Eve in Pennsylvania:
Tackling below the shoulder would be a very fine thing and very practical if runners could be forced to do their sprinting with head up and chest out. The sad part of it is that runners, like [“Galloping Ghost” Red Grange], run very low. If the Wheaton ice man is to be tossed at all, the tackler has little time or opportunity to pick a suitable spot of the Phantom around which to twine his arms. Officials believe that high tackling should be punishable to a 15-yard penalty.
Shortly thereafter, NCAA rulemakers refrained from acting on high tackling and head-up technique. Yet officials needed to find resolution somehow, because news on football TBI was getting worse, with discussion moving toward brain disease.
American football was awash in incidence of concussion or TBI suffered by players, as demonstrated by daily news, while treatment remained inconsistent and mysterious for lack of known, validated protocol. Medical convention, conservative approach, prescribed “the old clinical maxim that every case of concussion must be treated by a definite period of rest in bed, and the very slow and cautious resumption of active life,” said Dr. Wilfred Trotter, British surgeon of neurology, in 1924.
Dr. Morris Fishbein, editor of Journal of the American Medical Association [JAMA], noted football risk for concussion and emphasized specialized examination for suspected injury. Fishbein, writing for his national newspaper column in 1927, alerted readers to symptoms of broadly defined concussion, “such as dizziness, ringing in the ears, disturbance of vision, headache, drowsiness, pains in the eye, inability to sleep, convulsions or vomiting.”
But many doctors believed no serious injury occurred until loss of consciousness, an opinion parroted by football personnel, despite numerous player cases of severe TBI not involving knockouts. Football’s minimizing or downplaying cerebral disturbance was also conducive for returning players quickly to field contact. Brain trauma was merely cost of doing business in beloved head-ramming football, so teams stocked boxes of smelling salts, hired doctors when possible, and young athletes always lined up, willing combatants.
“No football player is afraid of getting knocked out. It’s too common an experience,” said Centre College star Sully Montgomery. “You can’t go through a season on the gridiron without being knocked senseless a couple of times.” Coaches were run over amid the fields of speeding bodies, too, like old battering ram Amos Alonzo Stagg, flattened while leading practice at the University of Chicago. Accidentally kayoed at age 64 by “a swift charging back,” Stagg returned next day for his job coaching the Maroons, 34 years running, newspapers reported.
Chronic mental disorder, meanwhile, became football’s larger question of the 1920s, the threat of permanent disease from impacts and jars. Boxing, pugilism, attracted glaring attention for medical allegations it caused brain damage, resulting in legal claims and defenses, but football was likewise suspected by people qualified to make the connection. At least one pair of researchers and a segment of NCAA coaches discussed possible neural disease among football players—before Dr. Harrison S. Martland released his milestone evidence of micro-hemorrhaging in brains of deceased boxers.
For years medical personnel had diagnosed disorder like traumatic insanity in football players, and “shell shock” since the World War. Doctors and football families linked suicide and crime to disease of brain trauma, testifying in cases of troubled players. “Punch drunk” or “slug nutty” commonly meant brain disorder in pugilists but the slang showed up elsewhere, around football in particular. A Brooklyn sportswriter described Syracuse linemen as “punch drunk and wavering” against Columbia in November of 1926, and famed columnist Grantland Rice ripped Harvard and Yale, football’s fading flagships, as “old timers who are now punch drunk.”
Drs. Michael Osnato and Vincent Giliberti discussed traumatic encephalitis in their 1927 article on post-concussion damage for Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry. The New York physicians concluded brain disease might manifest in “young men knocked out in football and other games,” announcing: “Our work shows that the structural factors in post-concussion neurosis have not received adequate attention.”
Awareness went mainstream in 1928, when Martland presented his findings of “punch drunk” in boxing and recommended investigation throughout contact sports for brain damage in athletes. The term sprang into popular lexicon, including for grist in comedy setups—“The Three Stooges [in] Punch Drunk!” News rhetoric from Washington relied on punch drunk allusions, discussing lawmakers and congressional bills paralyzed by politics.
Talk buzzed of punch-drunk football players, naturally, and apparently long had. “Notwithstanding that this condition has been known to boxing and football coaches for many years, it is only within the past year that the medical profession has seriously considered the matter,” wrote Dr. James W. Barton wrote for his syndicated newspaper column. Barton, a sport physician, continued:
As students we were taught that a “concussion” was just a shaking up of the brain. That it was as if you took the skull in your hands and gave the contents a “shake.” No injury followed it, because the bony case, the skull, was not injured. … Therefore we never gave concussion much thought, because, although there is a temporary loss of consciousness or a loss of memory, it soon clears away, and there is no apparent damage done.
However, Dr. H.S. Martland some months ago told us that in some of these cases the brain substance can be “bruised” just like other parts of the body, and this bruising results in the breaking of tiny blood vessels and discoloration just as in a bruise of the skin.
What is this knowledge going to mean to us?
It certainly does not mean that boxing, football or other sports should be abandoned, but where an athlete or a player in any kind of sport gets a bump, a blow, or a kick, and finds it results in a loss of memory, however short, he should keep away from that sport for a time, because it is the “repeated knocks,” coming at frequent intervals, that may finally unbalance the mind.
A doctor who refereed NCAA sports warned of “punch drunk” football players, speaking at a coaches gathering in Boston. Dr. Eddie O’Brien said: “Every one of you high school football coaches should see to it that a doctor is on the field of play, ready to rule whether a lad hurt in a game should be removed or not. If the player is not steady on his legs and normal in his faculties, he should be removed from the game and given medical assistance until he has fully recovered from the blow that caused the trouble.”
The writer Damon Runyon remarked that many football players “wind up a little slug-nutty.” New York sports columnist W.O. McGeehan criticized a coach for returning a “punch drunk” player to action, when “the first thing he did was to toss a forward pass to one of the opponents.” Coach Knute Rockne joked in Collier’s about a “punch drunk” halfback at Notre Dame, unable to find his sideline after getting rocked in a game.
Legendary Irish player Jim Crowley, one of the Four Horsemen, spoke seriously in regard to traumatic brain injury. Crowley, head football coach at Michigan State, drew praise for limiting practice hits among his players during the week. “Give that same outfit three or four scrimmages and they’ll be punch drunk when a game comes around,” Crowley said.
Besides Coach Crowley and the referee-physician Dr. O’Brien, football produced no fresh thought for protecting the head and reducing TBI, despite casualty reports like fatalities grabbing spotlight, 29 deaths and higher in 1931. Helmets were brought up again as possible prevention, and so-called technique. Grantland Rice, the household name among columnists and a former Vanderbilt player, teamed with NFL star Benny Friedman to retread and promote “heads up” headless hitting.
Friedman blamed deaths on the players themselves, for “lacking of skill in blocking and tackling.” The Giants’ record-setting quarterback insisted players must finally accept and learn heads-up contact. “I have seen any number of tacklers and ball carriers drive in with their heads down instead of keeping their heads up,” Friedman said. “I have also seen considerable attempted blocking with the head and neck instead of shoulders or body.”
Rice, wordsmith of Four Horsemen grid myth, channeled Friedman’s “heads up” tips for millions of readers, writing in his syndicated column: Tackle with your head up… A ball carrier should keep the head up… Use shoulders, hips and body… know the proper way to block.
Yale coach and physician Dr. Marvin “Mal” Stevens endorsed head-up theory and shoulder tackling, but he banked on helmet tech to finally fulfill hope for stopping TBI in football. “It is well within the bounds of reason that within a short space of time football equipment can and will be materially improved, and we look forward confidently to the near future when vastly improved headgear will eliminate all serious head injuries,” Stevens co-wrote in his 1933 book, The Control of Football Injuries, with Yale surgeon Dr. Winthrop Morgan Phelps.
Yale’s MD coach would enter his own headgear in the ring, football’s everlasting helmet sweepstakes. Dr. Mal Stevens would develop his own prototype for the elusive anti-concussion helmet, and, in standard practice for coach inventors, test it on heads of his college players.
1930s: CTE Evidence, Debate Cast Football as Causal Suspect
New Jersey pathologist Dr. Harrison S. Martland committed to a prime scientific mission in the 1920s, for exposing an occupational hazard, but it was not brain damage in athletes. The unassuming Martland, coroner of Essex County across the Hudson from New York City, became internationally renowned for identifying radium poisoning in factory workers, hundreds of women. Martland documented and explained the toxic disease, leading to court settlements for the afflicted and industry regulation to save lives. Additionally, Martland was a pioneer of forensic medicine for crime-solving and helped found a school in the science at NYU.
Martland could not follow-up his 1928 “punch drunk” findings, leaving the disease state for others to quickly label traumatic encephalopathy, or TE. His method for full brain autopsy would not be replicated in the United States until the next century, unfortunately for head-injury victims like athletes, combat soldiers and battered women, generations to come.
The American sports of boxing and football did not embrace Martland research, ignoring two urgent research needs posed by the results: a) to determine prevalence of traumatic encephalopathy among deceased athletes, and b) to randomly measure cognitive deficits in living athletes through converging neuro-psychiatric assessment tools.
Boxing officials had already questioned existence of punch-drunk syndrome, for decades, and they responded strongly to Martland’s brain slides that spelled instant tempest for the sport. Prizefighting insiders claimed, led by heavyweight champs Jack Dempsey and Gene Tunney, that factors besides punches caused undeniable micro-hemorrhaging, later termed as tau deposition. Insiders blamed child exploitation, poor training, “unscientific technique” and worn-out gloves for punch drunkenness, even falls to ring mats.
Boxing voices said low IQ could cause locomotor ataxia in boxers, or shuffling “fighter’s dance,” as could causal sins like alcohol, drugs, philandering—just not the sport itself. Seattle promoter Buddy Bishop declared bankers and bookkeepers faced same risk as boxers. “Dissipations and not punches bring a boxer to the ‘punch drunk’ stage,” Bishop said. “Bad liquor, later hours, unnatural habits and bad associates will make any person groggy in time. Boxers do not get ‘punch drunk’ from beatings.”
Football sidestepped epicenter of the TE debate and made no move toward disease studies of players. Many coaches and newsmen kept a humored perspective, joking about slug-nutty linemen, expressing nonchalance.
“These boys are getting punch-drunk from going up against bigger, tougher teams and so am I,” cracked Bob Zuppke, iconic coach and failed helmet inventor at University of Illinois. Washington columnist Shirley Povich practiced football-boxing hypocrisy dating to the 1880s, the act of condemning pugilism while extolling the gridiron; he depicted boxers as gladiatorial dupes but football players as swashbuckling, endearing “punch drunks.” And at Notre Dame, the football team’s ominous stockpiling of ammonia smelling salts for brain-blasted casualties got airy treatment in a wire report:
Irish Trainer Prepared For 1,440 “Knock Outs”
SOUTH BEND, Ind. (AP)—Eugene Young, Notre Dame trainer, is ready for a big football season.
Taught by experience, he has ordered a gross of boxes of inhalants, or 1,440 “smellers,” just about the quantity he needs to revive young gridders knocked unconscious on the gridiron. In the old days a bucket of water was all that was necessary.
But laughter had limits in the trustless Depression Era, including for the beloved gridiron institution. The game caught fallout over The Carnegie Report, corruption at colleges, and for player fatalities in schools and sandlots.
A special criticism materialized for traumatic brain injury and the question of disease potential in forward-colliding football. Medical experts, news writers and former players led a thorough public discussion, stamping the 1930s as another historic crisis for the game. Medical leaders were particularly versed in pertinent TBI literature, expert opinion and news information, perhaps in contrast to future personnel whose retro access would be restricted until electronic search of the 21st century.
Conventional doctors preceding World War Two, those unattached to sports medicine, deemed concussion or TBI of football unhealthy and potentially damaging. Specialists generally opposed rapid return to play for brain casualties in football, and some called for outlawing juvenile participation. A succession of MD newspaper columnists warned of football during the Thirties, such as Drs. William Brady, Morris Fishbein, Louis Berg, Logan Clendening and Irving S. Cutter.
Dr. Brady ripped juvenile play and enabler parents, along with characterizing schools as football churches that made pariahs of boys who resisted recruitment, indoctrination. And an anti-football administrator typically did nothing for fear of unemployment, Brady alleged. “Now, parents, all together: Down with high school football!” Brady proclaimed in his well-read column.
A key figure of football health debate was Dr. Fishbein, high-profile leader of the American Medical Association as national columnist and JAMA editor. Fishbein sounded the alert on concussion and potential damage of the collision game. “KEEP YOUR HELMET ON!” he preached to players, introducing a 1933 column for newspapers. Fishbein continued:
There have been far too many cases of concussion of the brain and even fracture of the skull in football to take a chance without adequate head protection. …
Most serious of all injuries are those affecting the brain and the skull. A concussion of the brain means that the brain tissue actually has been bruised, with possible small hemorrhages into the tissue.
The first sign of such injury is loss of memory for recent events. The least important sign is a slight dizziness. But coaches and trainers should not, however, be unimpressed when a player comes out of a sudden impact with another player merely slightly dizzy or dazed.
In a subsequent column, Dr. Fishbein observed: “Because the school or the team takes much of the responsibility for the football player, it should control the kind of medical attention that he receives. The man should not be permitted to consult the first charlatan at hand, but should be directed to proper medical care by those in charge of the team.”
Dr. Berg noted risk of brain disease in football and employed the medical term chronic encephalitis, or CE, for his column:
To many people the term “punch drunk” brings to mind a comic character weaving and boxing with an imaginary enemy the moment somebody sounds a bell behind him.
In truth it is an actual mental disorder—though not known scientifically under that name—brought on by repeated injuries to the blood vessels of the brain and the production of what is called chronic encephalitis.
It is a mistake to assume that this is a condition confined solely to ex-boxers. True the old-time fighter and in particular the preliminary boy, who risked his neck for a few dollars and the plaudits of the gallery, were the commonest exponents of this condition. But today one sees other victims of this disease due to punishment received about the head. Such a type is the football player who partakes in one game or one scrimmage too many. …
The mental symptoms of this disorder produced by minute hemorrhages in the brain, are a distortion of the faculties of attention, concentration and memory.
Dr. Clendening observed: “Punch drunk is an occupational disease. The victims have very marked personality changes… The condition is not confined to boxers, and may occur in football players or to anyone who receives a severe blow on the head.”
Medical literature and groups corroborated the MD columnists regarding brain injury, in communication often citing football.
“The increasing number of cases of trauma of the head [in society] presents a problem of major importance to all branches of the medical profession,” Drs. A.E. Bennett and H.B. Hunt wrote for Archives of Surgery journal in 1933, continuing:
There has been a marked therapeutic advance in the management of the severer types of acute injuries of the head in the past decade, owing to the increasing general knowledge of the diagnosis and treatment of cerebral edema and hemorrhage. Also, the surgical indications are fairly well agreed on by all authorities.
The milder degrees of cerebral trauma, which at the time of the accident are usually called cerebral concussion, representing types of injury to the brain without acutely increased intracranial pressure, with or without fracture of the skull, have not in our opinion received the study they deserve. In the past the results of treatment of this group of patients, in which there is a large number, have been unsatisfactory. A large percentage of the patients have residual complaints, and the question as to whether their complaints were on a psychogenic or an organic basis has not been clear.
Some of the patients show diffuse neurologic signs, mental symptoms, personality changes, palsies of the cranial nerves and bilateral findings, but no focal signs. These findings are not entirely attributable to cerebral edema, but are probably the result of multiple punctate hemorrhages throughout the brain tissue. This condition is a true type of traumatic encephalitis…
“Statistics show an appalling incidence of head trauma,” Drs. N.W. Winkelman and J.L. Eckel wrote for Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry in 1934, continuing:
The subject of the changes in the brain and the symptoms resulting from head injuries is coming to be most important in modern medicine. The courts are deluged with cases in which compensation and redress are sought because of claims of permanent sequelae as the result of alleged injuries to the brain. The subject is further complicated by the fact that neurologists and neurosurgeons are still at odds concerning the question of the organic or functional nature of many of the symptoms. The clinical evidences of brain trauma during the acute period require no lengthy descriptions.
Dr. Edward J. Carroll, Jr., who interviewed ring insiders for in his 1936 observational review of brain-injured boxers titled “Punch Drunk,” reported hearing of the condition among professional football players. Carroll wrote for American Journal of Medical Sciences:
There is a clinical syndrome of frequent occurrence among boxers, to which they refer as “punch-drunk,” “punchy,” “goofy,” “slap happy,” cutting paper dolls,” or “slug nutty.” Other terms might be applied, such as “traumatic dementia” or “traumatic encephalopathy,” but they are not nearly so appropriate and descriptive as the epithet “punch-drunk.” …
Although multiple punctate hemorrhages probably constitute the underlying pathologic change in punch-drunk, extensive degeneration might be explained even without reference to such vascular lesions. It is hardly possible that a blow which jars the brain sufficiently to cause loss of consciousness would not be followed by some tissue reaction, such as hyperemia and edema with effusion into the intracellular spaces, leading to [metabolic] disturbances of nutrition and thus to impairment of function. An area with anatomic predilection to this type of injury is the midbrain. With a jar of the skull, the midbrain is forced against the sharp edge of the tentorium and bruised, resulting in edema and hyperemia. Following repeated insults to this region a gliosis may begin, and increase with each succeeding trauma. This scarring could result in a narrowing of the aqueduct, predisposing to the formation of an internal hydrocephalus with an increase in the intraventricular pressure and subsequent damage to the cortex.
Another explanation is the jarring of the brain by a blow results in the fracturing of cell processes. The unequal specific gravities of the gray and white matter give to them different degrees of acceleration in response to a force. This inequality of movement might cause a rupture of the neurons at the junction of the two tissues. The technical problems of demonstrating such minute lesions and differentiating them from artefacts leave this occurrence unproven.
Carroll’s study would stand seminal among the American literature on brain disease of sport and other trauma causes. He concluded:
Comment. It is probable that no head blow is taken with impunity, and that each knock-out causes definite and irreparable damage. If such trauma is repeated for a long enough period, it is inevitable that nerve cell insufficiency will develop ultimately, and the individual will become punch-drunk.
The cognizance and investigation of this condition by the medical profession would be a contribution to the neurologic and psychiatric study of traumatic disorders. But a higher end would be the education of the layman to the remote dangers incident to repeated minor head traumas. The occurrence of this type of degenerative brain change must be recognized and publicized rather than disregarded and discounted. It is especially important that athletes entering into competitions in which head injuries are frequent and knock-outs are common should realize that they are exposing themselves not only to immediate injury, but also to remote and more sinister effects.
Specialists of medical groups and journals logically correlated “punch drunk” with head-ramming football, particularly in Pennsylvania, where the state athletic commission screened for stricken boxers. “ ‘Traumatic encephalopathy’ is what the doctor would call it… Should not young men in boxing and football be watched more closely and be forbidden the sport at the first sign of punch-drunkenness?” posed Pittsburgh Medical Record editors. The Delaware County Medical Society intoned: “Young athletes, whether in boxing or football or whatever sport should be carefully guarded by their trainers against the cranium crunchers that lead to being punch drunk.”
News media, for their part, reported of football TBI and punch-drunk players at all levels of the game in the 1930s.
Hartford Courant sportswriters extended concern for a local Colgate graduate and grid star, Joe Bogdanski, urging him in print to forego professional football. “Joe’s fresh-faced, handsomely built, tawny-skinned with the glow of health, full of the vigor of youth,” they editorialized, “who wants to see him battered and ‘punch drunk’ like some of the best-known pro football players of today? We could mention a few names… but we won’t.” Bogdanski would not play pro football, going on instead to earn a law degree and serve as Chief Justice of the Connecticut Supreme Court.
Press accounts alleged that anonymous football players suffered brain disease like many boxers who were landing in courts and mental wards. The writer-artist Copeland C. Burg filed this 1934 analysis for The Chicago American:
CHICAGO, Oct. 6—Punch-drunk football players! Sure—there are lots of them.
Like punch-drunk prizefighters, they are goofy and wander around in the clouds most of the time.
But try and prove it!
We mean get some football coach or big player to talk about it for publication.
Nothing doing. When queried they look at you as though you were very punch-drunk yourself and walk away.
But off the record they will tell you plenty.
They will tell you that _________ _________, at one time one of the biggest backfield stars in America, is so punch drunk he goes around writing bum checks, forgetting important engagements and generally acting so strange and absent-minded that he has ruined his professional career. He’s punch-drunk.
They will tell that __________ _________, formerly a big eastern star, who thrilled the overflowing stands with long runs down the field, is about to be taken to an insane asylum. He’s harmless but more easily cared for at an institution than in the home of a relative. Another punch-drunk victim.
They will tell you strange stories about many great players and the central theme of these yarns is that the players did this and that because they got punch-drunk from blows received in football games.
In modern football, in addition to the bumps and swats received in authorized play, there is considerable old-fashioned, Marquis of Queensbury, punching and slugging as everyone knows.
High up in the stands a spectator can’t see much of these private boxing matches but players, coaches, and officials down on the field know that almost all games are marked by a score or more of good knockout punches, “sneaked” over during line plunges and other plays that give a chance to swat in the dark.
Kicking is another feature contributing to punch-drunk gridiron victims. Nearly every player gets kicked in the head by one of the enemy at least once or twice each season.
The writer talked to a former midwestern star about punch-drunk football players. This player was one of the best ever turned out in America. He admitted freely that many players were punch-drunk and never recovered from the effects of the blows they received on the gridiron. He named several big stars from leading colleges. He also named quite a few former college heroes, now professional football players.
Some of the yarns he told about those players were pretty wild.
In fact the writer was and is firmly convinced the man he was listening to was thoroughly punch-drunk himself.
In Georgia, The Albany Democrat-Herald declared athletes had but a shelf life in football and brain-battering sent many into premature decline, a brutal cause-and-effect scenario “apparent to laymen who have followed the game.” The editorial continued:
Football is a hard game. Those who play hardest at it are likely to be jarred into a condition similar to that which fighters and wrestlers undergo. They become what would be called in the ring “punch drunk.” This mental condition, together with the physical injuries which football players sustain, operate to slow men up as they become veterans. That is the probable explanation of a vast majority of anti-climaxed gridiron biographies.
Critics contended NCAA football should provide “scholarships,” medical coverage and pensions for players, given the profits for colleges and coaches. Scandal struck the University of North Carolina in 1937, revelations of illicit aid to football players, and The Daily Tar Heel editorialized against injuries and feigned amateurism, suggesting a professional club might be in order for campus. Editors co-wrote:
If we have to have football to let some boys work their way through school… abolish the “beating” they get in the game, and give them part of the $30,000 we collect in fees in the form of plain scholarships. The boys would have a much better chance to show themselves good students and worthy “persons as persons,” as the rules say, than they do now when you work them every day for five hours, take them out of school one sixth of the time… turn ‘em out in the end punch drunk or cracked up, and make ‘em lie about it, to boot. If you want to improve conditions, why don’t you set up a working hour-wage law for football, forbidding more than an hour-and-a-half practice every day. …
One more and probably the most honest suggestion: rent the stadium and the whole outfit to the alumni, let them put out a really first class ball club, professional and paid, under the name, if you will, of the UNC Alumni team. If the boys happen accidentally to want to take advantage of the educational opportunities here, splendid; let ‘em register with their preferred Dean.
News commentators kept hammering football as America approached its next great war. At autumn’s outset in 1939, a West Coast columnist remarked: “It is now football season and there will be about 12,000 college men playing this year for—for what? Getting knocked punch drunk to promote a billion-dollar business.”
The unattributed blurb, surfacing on an Opinion page in Van Nuys, perhaps was traceable to Oakland Tribune sports editor Art Cohn. Soon after, with football casualty reports piling up, Cohn panned the game’s “rotten racket in glamor and glorified insanity.” He wrote: “The football business cannot absolve itself… Football cannot even give its victims—or their bereaved—enough insurance to cover doctors’ bills and funeral expenses.”
1940: Plastic Helmet Panacea, Doctors Coin CTE Term
Football officials of the Thirties were not easily provoked by detractors whose complaints were muted amid cultural glorification of the game. The pro level was unorganized among circuits like the NFL and of marginal interest, anyway. The premier NCAA game was bureaucratic with leaders scattered at member schools, tough to corner individually on the macro issues, especially traumatic brain injury.
Many NCAA figures were coaches widely adored for winning, flanked by friendly media to defend them and the sport, such as counterattacking Frank Scully, a writer and former Columbia player with a leg amputation of injury infection. When Scully alleged college football was rife with brain disease, in his exposé published by Liberty magazine, ready scribes pounced to excoriate him as a vengeful liar.
The NCAA and coaches association stated nothing formally on the prospect of permanent brain damage for players. But officialdom finally gave ground over broadly defined concussion, conceding it was common problem for football, as conventional medicine had charged since the Victorian Era. “Concussion is a term which is used to describe a very definite injury,” observed football coach Dr. Mal Stevens, a forerunner of sports medicine, along with Yale surgeon Dr. Winthrop Phelps. The book co-authors continued:
It is the result of a blow on the head which is sufficiently hard to cause a period of temporary disturbance [emphasis added] of the proper functioning of the brain. This is usually apparent either from a period of unconsciousness or may be seen in a period during which the player is dazed or unaware of what is going on. He may seem to continue to play normally but will not remember, afterwards, events which have occurred during a given period of time. This period of amnesia may last from a few minutes to a few hours. A mild concussion may often be determined by asking the player questions which require him to be closely in touch with his environment.
Stevens led official endorsement of sideline testing for concussion, a questions-based protocol appearing in the first NCAA medical handbook, 1933, then reputed to fully protect football players at programs like Yale. Stevens served one term as president of the American Football Coaches Association and chaired its injury committee longstanding, overseeing publication of recommendations for safer play following the 1937 season.
The AFCA list mostly recounted official talking points on brutality for 40 years, boilerplate football promises crafted by the late Walter Camp at olden Yale, including: preseason fitness examination for every player child and adult; quality facilities; protective equipment; constant injury monitoring by doctor and coach; proper training and technique; qualified instruction; and parental vigilance for player health. But the modern coaches posted progressive points, too, urging free injury care and heart screening for all players.
AFCA recommendation No. 6 addressed negligence of brain injury in football—extraordinarily for the time, profoundly for future context—while specifying a concussion threshold to avoid mortality in contact sport:
During the past seven years the practice has been too prevalent of allowing players to continue playing after a concussion. Again this year this is true. This can be checked at the time of the preseason medical examination by case history questions. A case in point is where no knowledge was had before the player’s death of a boy who suffered a previous concussion from a bicycle accident. Sports demanding personal contact should be eliminated after an individual has suffered one concussion.
No such health talk found way into NCAA football rules or other mandated policy through the Thirties. As in past crises, the committee tinkered with “unnecessary roughness” code to ban slapping and forearm strikes to the head, among modifications. Officials touted the “side” and “roll” tackles for safety, and coaching reemphasized that players must hit with head up and aside. Players were taught “scientific” falling and tumbling, how to tuck chins and roll on shoulders. And football officials promised safer helmets, as usual, touting a revolutionary technology.
Dr. Stevens saw moment to unveil his “concussion eliminator” helmet, pneumatic technology presumably improved from the faulty Spalding models in early century. Stevens, head football coach at NYU in 1939, tested the helmet on his players and reported “experiments have proved it highly successful.” The United Press parroted Stevens’ claim his model eliminated all TBI down to headaches, in a wire brief without noting independent validation. The Stevens helmet of thick rubber and air-cushions did not sell, however, particularly when plastic hard-shells were the rage.
Plastic helmets were football’s salvation, certain to stop brain injury in football, so went the popular assumption without scientific proof. John T. Riddell released his plastic models in 1940 with major press, emerging as the chosen football coach to reap helmet riches. State-of-the-art Riddell helmets adorned Northwestern players, fully protecting them from head injury, according to the narrative. Soon he would join production forces with the U.S. military.
Nothing really changed, of course, for field danger that season. Football games and practices continued producing TBI incidents by the thousands, according to news reports available in electronic databases such as ProQuest and Newspapers.com. The year’s grid star was ramming fullback John Alec Kimbrough, Texas A&M, a spectacular “line ripper” of size and speed who amassed yardage in “his famed butting, diving, plunging and shouldering,” reported The Christian Science Monitor.
Also in 1940, a pair of psychiatrists coined the term chronic traumatic encephalopathy, or CTE. Drs. Karl M. Bowman and Abram Blau discussed CTE in a boxer’s case for their book chapter “Psychotic States Following Head and Brain Injury in Adults and Children.”
A year later Pearl Harbor was bombed, drawing the United States into World War Two, and horrific global conflict desensitized the American public for domestic issues like tackle football.
1962: Reselling Anti-Concussion Helmets and Heads Up
When Mal Stevens was a young head coach in college football, he dreamed of becoming rich. “If I had a million dollars,” Stevens would remark, “I’d buy me a professional football team and enjoy myself for the rest of my life by coaching it.” Telling the story to a writer in 1960, Dr. Marvin A. “Mal” Stevens did not mention whether foil was his failure to engineer the golden anti-concussion football helmet. Besides, he still had not given up on the pneumatic model.
Dr. Stevens no longer coached football, having left the game following World War Two and his military service as orthopedic surgeon and medical adviser. In 1951 Stevens accepted the New York governor’s appointment to “help clean up boxing” by establishing a boxing medical board for the State Athletic Commission. Thus Stevens became recognized for leading American boxing’s campaign to attack and deny CTE findings back to Martland’s “punch drunk” study.
Stevens, the joint-and-bone specialist, living legend of sports medicine, still insisted concussion or traumatic brain injury was temporary, posing no risk of permanent damage. Citing his own brain studies of athletes, scoffing like so many of his colleagues in U.S. sport, Stevens dismissed neurological theory of repetitive, sub-concussive trauma as causal for disease.
“We just haven’t seen any punch-drunk fighters since I have been here, and we’ve been looking for them,” Stevens testified before New York legislators in 1962, adding his regret that “we don’t have boxing in every school and every town in the country.” Neurologist Dr. Abraham Rabiner, a boxing colleague of Stevens at the Albany hearings, testified that studies on repetitive blows and chronic encephalopathy amounted to junk science, “nonsense.”
Plastic football helmets had proven no panacea for preventing TBI, meanwhile, the addition of rigid facemasks notwithstanding. Riddell and other makers of hard headgear had succeeded in major sales over the decades since leathers, but danger of head-on brain injury was higher than ever in football—unnecessarily so, according to Dr. Stevens.
“The hard plastic helmets used today are worse than the ones we used 30 years ago. They ought to be outlawed,” Stevens commented in The Boston Globe. “Players can use their helmets as offensive weapons. The faceguards are worse.” Stevens believed his helmet of air-cushioned rubber had hope yet. “I don’t favor all this stuff that goes in front of the face,” he volunteered. “I think a player would be much better off with a well-fitted, soft and resilient helmet, without a faceguard. There’s been some experimentation with pneumatic helmets, but without much luck.”
Helmet rivalry aside, Stevens strongly advocated football and rejected revivalist criticism for juvenile participation, declaring the sport itself was not dangerous, only irresponsible individuals. “If you’re going to play the game, then you must accept the fact that there will be some injuries. But with proper supervision and good common sense, there is less risk in playing football than there is in driving to the game.”
He sounded like Walter Camp, revered “Father of Football” whom Stevens got to know as star Yale halfback in the early Twenties. During this 1962 interview Stevens repeated football’s time-trusted talking points, rhetoric as though fresh instead of rehash for gullible generations. The Boston student writers who interviewed Stevens, and Globe copy editors who laid out the Q&A page, headlined football as “Basically a Safe Game.”
They printed verbatim Stevens’ stock football lines about blocking and tackling, promising headless contact—often impossible in forward-colliding sport, particularly for modern bullet-head helmets.
“Teach the players to run with their heads up; block and tackle with their heads up,” Stevens said. “You can’t theorize on these things.”
The author stocks additional information in histories, medical literature and thousands of news texts, among media, for this analysis. Also see ChaneysBlog news lines on Heads Up theory and football brain disease.
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Clendening, L. (1936, June 9). Diet and health. Mason City Globe-Gazette IA., p.12.
Coach Heisman. (1903, Dec. 23). Coach Heisman asks changes. Atlanta Constitution, p.3.
Coaches Hint. (1961, Oct. 25). Coaches hint factor on grid deaths. Indiana Evening Gazette IN, p.22.
Coaches Propose. (1961, Oct. 13). Coaches propose safety study to reduce football fatalities. New York Times, p.46.
Coaches Safer. (1962, Jan. 11). Coaches’ unit outlines program at making football safer. Appleton Post-Crescent WI, p.C1.
Coaches See. (1935, Nov. 13). Coaches see lack of supervision as cause of deaths. Reading Times PA, p.13.
Cohn, A. (1936, Dec. 12). Cohn-ning tower. Oakland Tribune, p.9.
Cohn, A. (1939, Nov. 4). And that’s what they call ‘courage.’ Oakland Tribune, p.10.
College Boys. (1885, Nov. 2). College boys playing football. Wilkes-Barre Times PA, p.1.
College Foot-Ball. (1888, Dec. 1). College foot-ball. Chicago Inter Ocean, p.2.
Collingdale Leather. (1960, Jan. 15). Collingdale may shift to leather. Delaware Daily Times PA, p.16.
Comment Sports. (1909, Dec. 27). Comment on sports: Reform in football. New York Tribune, p.5.
Condones Habits. (1903, Feb. 12). Condones bad habits. Oakland Tribune, p.3.
Connett, W.C. (1906, Aug. 16). The roving forward; quarterback kick. St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p.14.
Crawford, F.W. (1944, Oct. 20). Cornhuskers and Jayhawkers in renewal of feud. Muscatine Journal and News Tribune IA, p.8.
Cunningham, B. (1939, December). Football not for my son. Cosmopolitan.
Currie, G. (1928, Oct. 14). Yale upsets Georgia while N.Y.U. and Columbia win. Brooklyn Daily Eagle, p.33.
Currie, G. (1928, Nov. 5). Would an Oberlander have brought victory to Dartmouth? Brooklyn Daily Eagle, p.36.
Currie, G. (1932, Jan. 3). Year to see football in hands of men bent on reforming it. Brooklyn Daily Eagle, p.43.
Cutter, I.S. (1936, Sept. 24). Today’s health talk. Washington Post, p.XII.
Daley, A. (1960, Nov. 17). Sports of The Times. Warner County Observer PA, p.17.
Daley, G. (1936, Sept. 6). Sport talk. New York Herald Tribune, p.B2.
Daly, C.D. (1920, Oct. 10). Good team work depends on correct position play. Boston Daily Globe, p.F6.
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Days Numbered. (1909, Nov. 16). Days of flying tackle are numbered; cause of many fatalities. New Castle Herald PA, p.5.
Deals Blow. (1905, Nov. 7). Deals a blow to football: Jury that investigates the death of young player says game is demoralizing. San Francisco Call, p.7.
Death Tackler. (1897, Oct. 27). Death was the tackler. New York World, p.5.
Decker Brothers. (1940, Oct. 1). Sporting tops war interest, guns increase. Mason City Globe-Gazette, p.42.
Definition Sought. (1937, Feb. 28). Definition sought for ‘punch drunk’ in court battle. Atlanta Constitution, p.2B.
Detroit Teaches. (1933, Oct. 4). Detroit teaches players to tackle high. Tyrone Daily Herald PA, p.7.
Dietzel, P.F. (1962, Sept. 7). Good, solid tackles give many thrills. Stroudsburg Pocono Record PA, p.13.
Dillingham, J.B. (1937, Sept. 30). Frank Scully knows bed-pans but doesn’t know football players. Columbia Daily Spectator NY, p.2.
Dispute Game. (1885, Nov. 1). Dispute over a foot-ball game. Philadelphia Times, p.2.
Doctor Advocates. (1938, March 2). Doctor advocates abolition of boxing as college sport. Corsicana Daily Sun TX, p.8.
Doctor Favors. (1961, Nov. 4). Doctor favors dropping face masks from football helmets. Appleton Post-Crescent WI, p.8.
Doctors Condemn. (1962, Oct. 3). Doctors condemn helmet blocks. Odessa American TX, p.36.
Doctors Sport. (1960, Dec. 12). Doctors on sport. Time, 76 (24), pp.72,75.
Dr. Martland. (1954, May 2). Dr. Martland dies; radium pathologist. New York Herald Tribune, p.66.
Dr. Stevens. (1932, Oct. 30). Dr. Marvin A. (Mal) Stevens, head coach of the Yale University football team. Washington Post, p.MS3.
Eastern Officials. (1925, Dec. 28). Eastern football officials to seek revision of rules. Springfield Leader MO, p.6.
Eckersall, W. (1922, Sept. 12). Tackling art needs coaches’ attention. Chicago Daily Tribune, p.22.
Edgren, R. (1919, June 13). Champion weighs 252 pounds after grueling workout. St. Louis Post-Dispatch MO, p.21.
Effie’s Effusions. (1928, Jan. 24). Effie’s effusions. Wilkes-Barre Evening News PA, p.19.
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Excerpts Letters. (1937, Sept. 12). Excerpts from our letters. Washington Post, p.B9.
Explaining Failure. (1937, Oct. 17). Explaining failure of boxers’ memories. Baltimore Sun, p.SH10.
Fair Harvard. (1888, Nov. 18). Fair Harvard is humbled. Chicago Inter Ocean, p.2.
Fauver, E., Thorndike, A., & Raycroft, J.E. (1933, July). National Collegiate Athletic Association Medical Handbook for Schools and Colleges. Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ.
Fight Game. (1927, July 24). Fight game beneficial to boxers, asserts Brombe. Hartford Courant CT, p.5B.
Fighters Not. (1932, June 5). Fighters are not alone in being ‘punch drunk.’ Hartford Courant CT, p.C5.
Fighting For. (1928, May 17). Fighting for his life. Roseburg News-Review OR, p.10.
First Death. (1924, Sept. 12). First football death recorded. Bismarck Tribune ND, p.8.
Fishbein, M. (1927, Aug. 29). Your health. Reading Times PA, p.6.
Fishbein, M. (1928, Oct. 25). Brain often injured by punches in prize ring. Franklin News-Herald PA, p.9.
Fishbein, M. (1933, Oct. 10). Six rules for safety—medical authorities on athletics set down requirements to guard against injuries in fall sports. Bradford Evening Daily Record PA, p.2.
Fishbein, M. (1933, Oct. 19). Daily hints on health. Manitowac Herald-Times WI, p.5.
Fishbein, M. (1934, Sept. 23). Guard gridsters against injuries from bruises. Brownsville Herald TX, p.4.
Fishbein, M. (1939, Sept. 21). Coaches should watch for concussion, tape ankles, knees of grid players. Manitowoc Herald-Times WI, p.4.
Fishbein, M. (1940, Feb. 21). Internal effect of head blow is a puzzle to medical profession. Wilkes-Barre Evening News PA, p.10.
Fodder Box. (1932, Nov. 27). Fodder for sports from the press box. Bluefield Daily Telegraph WV, p.9.
Foot Ball. (1886, Dec. 5). Foot ball. Brooklyn Daily Eagle, p.1.
Foot Ball. (1887, Nov. 13). Foot-ball. Chicago Daily Tribune, p.14.
Foot Ball. (1888, Dec. 2). Foot-ball. Chicago Inter Ocean, p.2.
Foot Ball. (1890, Dec. 3). Foot-ball vs. prize-fighting. St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p.10.
Foot Ball. (1895, Sept. 26). Foot ball and prize fighting, Greenville Record-Argus PA, p.4.
Foot Ball. (1901, Nov. 14). Foot-ball. Philadelphia Times, p.12.
Foot-Ball’s Victim. (1896, Nov. 19). Foot-ball’s victim. Lawrence Weekly World KS, p.5.
Football. (1902, Oct. 30). Football. Vancouver Daily World, British Columbia, Canada.
Football. (1910, Sept. 17). Football. Coshocton Daily Age OH, p.7.
Football Armor. (1897, Oct. 3). Football armor: Changes in the devices for players this year. Chicago Daily Tribune, p.38.
Football Armor. (1899, Dec. 21). Football armor. Marion Crittenden Press KY, p.6.
Football Changed. (1888, May 7). Football rules changed. New York Times, p.1.
Football Crippler. (1939, Nov. 9). Football is a crippler. Whitewright Sun TX, p.4.
Football Dangerous. (1908, Oct. 28). Football dangerous, as record shows. Salt Lake Tribune, p.11.
Football Death. (1895, Dec. 5). Football causes death. Belle Plaine News KS, p.2.
Football Factor. (1911, Jan. 31). Football factor for evil. Syracuse Post-Standard NY, p.10.
Football Fight. (1905, Feb. 2). Football is a fight, says President Eliot. New York Times, p.6.
Football Games. (1892, March 6). Football games: Plenty of blood spilled at Central Park. San Francisco Chronicle, p.17.
Football Headgear. (1903, Aug. 17). Foot ball players head gear. Mount Carmel Daily News PA, p.1.
Football Hurt. (1901, Sept. 28). Football player hurt at Stanford. San Francisco Chronicle, p.4.
Football Injuries. (1894, May 8). Football injuries. New York Tribune, p.4.
Football Injury. (1915, Dec. 6). Football injury may have been responsible: Raymond E. Yerger, former high school athlete, a suicide in state hospital. Allentown Democrat PA, p.5.
Football Killed. (1914, Oct. 13). Football player killed. Brooklyn Daily Eagle, p.14.
Football List. (1926, Dec. 9). Football list deaths smaller. Whitewright Sun TX, p.6.
Football Menace. (1910, Jan. 12). Football menace is diving tackle, says expert. Monongahela Daily Republican PA, p.3.
Football Notes. (1893, Nov. 8). Football notes. Topeka Daily Capital KS, p.4.
Football Rules. (1912, Sept. 23). Football rules for 1912. Greensboro Daily News NC, p.2.
Football Squad. (1913, Oct. 9). Football squad has first workout of season. Winston-Salem Journal NC, p.7.
For Safer. (1910, Jan. 26). For safer football. Washington Herald DC, p.8.
Forced Quit. (1909, Nov. 18). Forced to quit school. Newport Miner WA, p.8.
Fordham Star. (1931, Dec. 3). Fordham star dies of hurts and sets sports-loving fans wondering of aftermath. Danville Bee VA, p.8.
Former Star. (1928, Nov. 30). Former Yale star beats up his wife. Helena Independent Record MT, p.1.
Fraley, O. (1961, Oct. 30). Manufacturer defends plastic grid helmet. Redlands Daily Facts CA, p.9.
Frank, N. (1934, Dec. 29). It just occurred to me. Harrisburg Telegraph PA, p.8.
Frank Scully. (1937, Sept. 30). Frank Scully gives inside dope. Wilkes-Barre Evening News PA, p.28.
Friedman Safety. (1934, April 27). Friedman for safety. New York Times, p.28.
Geary, M.J. (1892, Dec. 4). Seen by a novice. San Francisco Call, p.8.
Gemmell, R. (1939, March 31). Sport sparks. Oregon Statesman, p.17.
Georgia Tech. (1929, Jan. 2). Georgia Tech wins national title by defeating California: Was Riegels punch-drunk when he made that weird run? Portsmouth Daily Times OH, p.12.
Getty, F. (1928, April 14). Sportsmatter. Klamath News OR, p.2.
Goals Touchdowns. (1890, Nov. 2). Goals and touchdowns. Brooklyn Daily Eagle, p.8.
Gold Triumphs. (1911, Dec. 1). Gold and black triumphs over Sewanee purple. Nashville Tennessean and Nashville American, p.1.
Goss Coach. (1904, Oct. 10). Goss to coach. Minneapolis Journal, p.14.
Got Craze. (1914, Dec. 9). Got murder craze from gridiron kick. Greenwood Daily Journal SC, p.5.
Gould, A. (1930, Jan. 28). Sports slants. Miami Daily News-Record OK, p.5.
Government Study. (1936, April 27). Government to make study of punch drunks [London]. Big Spring Daily Herald TX, p.8
Government Waste. (1936, May 26). Government waste held ‘punch-drunk.’ Ogden Standard-Examiner UT, p.10.
Graves, E. (1921, Oct. 2). The line’s the thing, says Maj. Graves. Boston Daily Globe, p.E5.
Grid News. (1933, Oct. 17). Grid news and views from B.H.S. Blytheville Courier News AR, p.6.
Grid Elbow. (1962, Jan. 8). Grid elbow big weapon. Brandon Sun, Manitoba, Canada, p.9.
Gridder Recovering. (1919, Oct. 2). Gridder recovering. Pittsburgh Daily Post, p.14.
Gridder Saved. (1942, April 21). Gridder saved by plastic helmet. New Philadelphia Daily Times OH, p.5.
Gridiron Gossip. (1906, Sept. 30). Gridiron gossip. Washington Post, p.3.
Griffen, C.R. (1933, Jan. 31). Daily cross-word puzzle. New York Herald Tribune, p.31.
Grist Mill. (1934, Dec. 19). Grist From The sports mill. Hartford Courant CT, p.16.
Guardian For. (1917, April 3). Guardian for Wolgast. Wichita Beacon KS, p.7.
Guidry, B. (1960, Aug. 7). Racing helmets on Hobbs gridiron? Hobbs Daily News-Sun NM, p.7.
Hailey, A. (1939, Sept. 10). Boxing leaders plan knockout blows against fight game’s evils. Washington Post, p.B7.
Hailey, F. (1934, Dec. 28). Challenge to reduce football casualties issued by professor. Salem Daily Capital Journal OR, p.9.
Hand, J. (1955, June 10). New York physician calls other sports tougher than boxing. Escanaba Daily Press MI, p.12.
Harness Football. (1900, Nov. 12). Harness in football, Fort Wayne Daily News IN, p.8.
Harrison, E.A. (2014, May). The first concussion crisis: Head injury and evidence in early American football. American Journal of Public Health, 104 (5), pp.822-33.
Harry Forbes. (Nov. 4, 1919). Harry Forbes says healer will help him. Bloomington Pantagraph IL, p.15.
Harvard Expected. (1928, Nov. 24). Harvard expected to take important game in New England today. Coshocton Tribune OH, p.6.
Harvard Jolted. (1911, Nov. 12). Harvard is jolted by the Carlisle Indians. Pittsburgh Daily Post, p.18.
Harvard Student. (1885, Nov. 12). A Harvard student fatally injured. Lebanon Daily News PA, p.1.
Harvard Students. (1895, Feb. 21). Harvard students angry. New York World, p.6.
Harvard’s Team. (1892, Nov. 20). Harvard’s football team beaten six to nothing. New York Herald, p.1.
Head Blocking. (1962, Oct. 24). Head blocking under scrutiny. Beckley Post-Herald WV, p.2.
Head-On Collision. (1933, Sept. 28). Head-on collision results in grid death in East. Fresno Bee Republican CA, p.30.
Headgear Report. (1962, May 22). Headgear report is made public. Gettysburg Times PA, p.5.
Health Hygiene. (1936, Nov. 9). Health and hygiene: Football and head injuries. Sault Marie Evening News MI, p.4.
Henry, B. (1924, Nov. 2). California Bears rout Trojans in sensational battle. Los Angeles Times, p.A1.
Herald Class. (1935, Aug. 11). Herald Tribune football class to hear Little explain defense: Columbia coach to lecture on unique style of line play, blocking, tackling. New York Herald Tribune, p.B5.
Hilton, M. (1958, Nov. 4). Protest jumping on University Trojan coach [LTE]. Waco News-Herald TX, p.4.
Hitting Line. (1923, Sept. 13). Football lessons, hitting the line. Decatur Herald IL, p.16.
Hollingworth, F. (1963, April 11). Sports merry-go-round: Doctors argue on boxing! Long Beach Independent CA, p.39.
Homicidal From. (1914, Dec. 6). Homicidal from football. Washington Post, p.19.
How Played. (1887, Nov. 25). How it is played. Fitchburg Sentinel MA, p.4.
How Won. (1891, Nov. 27). How the game was won. New York Times, p.2.
Hughes, E. (1931, Oct. 18). Those ‘punch drunk’ scrimmagers. Brooklyn Daily Eagle, p.31.
Hughes, E. (1936, March 27). Punch-drunks. Brooklyn Daily Eagle, p.28.
Hughes, E. (1937, April 12). “On account of repeated beatings.” Brooklyn Daily Eagle, p.18.
Humble Cornell. (1899, Oct. 15). Humble Cornell’s pride. Chicago Daily Tribune.
Hurt Memory. (1900, Nov. 13). Hurt at football, lost memory. Pittsburgh Daily Post, p.6.
Husband Slays. (1933, Sept. 25). Husband slays wife. Kingsport Times TN, p.3.
Hyman, H.T. (1961, Jan. 3). The doctor talks about: Head injury. Troy Record NY, p.6.
Indiana Drill. (1910, June 9). Indiana drill shows new football rough. Indianapolis News, p.12.
Indiana News. (1917, Jan. 31). Indiana news in brief. Indianapolis News, p.15.
Indians Good. (1895, Nov. 29). Indians play good football. New York Times, p.6.
Indians Practice. (1899, Dec. 13). Indians practice on Folsom Street field. San Francisco Chronicle, p.14.
Ingram, B. (1935, Oct. 30). As I was saying. El Paso Herald-Post TX.
Injured Gridder. (1937, Oct. 26). Injured gridder to play. Fresno Bee CA, p.10.
Inquiry Save. (1888, April 25). Inquiry to save Busch’s life. Chicago Inter Ocean, p.7.
Inter Collegiate. (1887, March 27). Inter-college foot-ball. Philadelphia Times, p.2.
Intercollegiate Foot-Ball. (1889, March 21). Intercollegiate foot-ball. Chicago Inter Ocean, p.2.
Interest Football. (1889, Nov. 30). Interest in foot-ball. Chicago Inter Ocean, p.4.
Investigation Proves. (1909, Dec. 26). Investigation proves injuries in football have been exaggerated. Chicago Inter Ocean.
Iola Theatre. (1934, Aug. 2). The Three Stooges “Punch Drunk” [advertisement]. Iola Register KS, p.8.
Irish Prepared. (1933, Sept. 1). Irish trainer prepared for 1,440 “knock outs.” Rushville Republican IN, p.3.
Is Football? (1894, Dec. 13). Is football too brutal to play? Winnipeg Tribune, Manitoba, Canada, p.2.
It Was. (1889, Nov. 29). It was a hard fought contest. Chicago Daily Tribune, p.2.
It’s Dementia. (1938, Jan. 16). It’s ‘dementia pugilistica’ and not ‘punch drunk.’ New York Times, p.67.
Jab, J. (1911, April 14). Fistic foibles. Pittsburgh Press, p.27.
JAMA. (1906, Jan. 13). Surgical aspects of football [editorial]. Journal of the American Medical Association, 46 (2), pp.122-23.
Johnston, A. (1887, October). The American game of football. The Century Illustrated Magazine Monthly Magazine, 34 (6).
Keane, A.W. (1931, July 11). Calling ’em right. Hartford Courant CT, p.12.
Keane, A.W. (1934, Jan. 26). Calling ’em right. Hartford Courant CT, p.16.
Keane, A.W. (1938, June 1). Calling ’em right. Hartford Courant CT, p.11.
Kegg, J.S. (1962, Feb. 6). Tapping the sports Kegg. Cumberland Evening Times MD, p.10.
Kemble, R.P. (1937, Feb. 10). Odds and ends. Mount Carmel Item PA, p.2.
Kicking Foot Ball. (1892, Oct. 24). Kicking the foot ball. Brooklyn Daily Eagle, p.8.
Kiernan, J. (1933, Feb. 12). Sport of the times. New York Times, p.54.
Kilbane, J. (1939, July 16). “Let’s make them right.” Los Angeles Times, p.13.
Knute Knows. (1930, Dec. 23). Knute knows best. Hamilton Journal News OH, p.6.
Laid Rest. (1915, Dec. 10). Laid to rest. Allentown Leader PA, p.6.
Lake Forest. (1899, Oct. 22). Lake Forest player is injured. Chicago Daily Tribune, p.22.
Latest Football. (1940, Oct. 16). Latest in football fashion [photo cutline]. Chapel Hill Daily Tar Heel NC, p.3.
Laugh At. (1894, Feb. 10). Laugh at the anti-football bill. New York World, p.6.
Lee, B. (1945, Dec. 1). Will malice toward none. Hartford Courant CT, p.9.
Lewis, G.M. (1965). The American Intercollegiate Football Spectacle, 1869-1917. University of Maryland: College Park.
Like Knights. (1937, Oct. 25). Like knights of old. Mount Carmel Item PA, p.5.
Linthicum, J.A. (1932, Aug. 7). Ring and rasslin’ racket. Baltimore Sun, p.S5.
Little Mike. (1909, Nov. 7). Little Mike Walker is one of the smallest coaches, and likewise one of the quietest. St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p.2S.
Local Football. (1920, Nov. 20). Local football team will have hard week. Richmond Times-Dispatch, p.3.
Local Wise. (1895, Oct. 3). Local and other-wise. Fayette County Leader IA, p.8.
Locals Walk. (1917, Sept. 30). Locals walk away from Tuscola High, 37 to 13. Decatur Herald IL, p.8
Lockwood, P.E. (1926, Nov. 26). Hanson’s field day is Lions’ doomsday. Brooklyn Daily Eagle, p.26.
Lost Points. (1892, Oct. 30). Lost by two points. Chicago Daily Tribune, p.6.
Magazines. (1885, Aug. 13). Magazines. Washington National Tribune DC, p.8.
Mal Stevens. (1951, Nov. 17). Mal Stevens to head N.Y. boxing board. Decatur Herald IL, p.4.
Mal Stevens. (1962, Sept. 9). Mal Stevens sees night football boosting injuries: It’s basically a safe game. Boston Globe, p.A44.
Many Changes. (1910, Jan. 9). Many changes suggested in football rules by former college players. Pittsburgh Daily Post, p.17.
Maroons Arrive. (1898, Oct. 31). Maroons arrive today. Chicago Daily Tribune, p.4.
Marsh, I.T. (1952, Nov. 21). College viewpoint. New York Herald Tribune, p.24.
Martland, H.S. (1928, Oct. 13). Punch drunk. Journal of the American Medical Association, 91 (15), pp.1103-07.
Martland Retires. (1953, Nov. 26). ‘Medical Sherlock Holmes’: Martland, radiation expert, retires as Essex examiner. New York Herald Tribune, p.16.
McCormack, P. (1960, Aug. 21). Medics decry athletics. Los Angeles Times, p.K10.
McGeehan, W.O. (1929, Jan. 29). The strenuous game. New York Herald Tribune, p.25.
McGeehan, W.O. (1929, Nov. 26). And so it goes. New York Herald Tribune, p.38.
McGeehan, W.O. (1932, Aug. 23). Down the line. New York Herald Tribune, p.19.
McGill, R. (1932, Feb. 16). Break of the day! Atlanta Constitution, p.10.
McIntyre, G.R. (1932, Nov. 10). Chaff’n chatterR. Appleton Post-Crescent WI, p.13.
Medical Notes. (1887, April 7). Medical notes. Abilene Weekly Reflector KS, p.6.
Memorable Day. (1910, June 22). Memorable day for Allentown H.S. graduates. Allentown Democrat PA, pp.1-7.
Menke, F.C. (1926, Oct. 26). Will to win gets outstanding call on football field. Charleston Gazette WV, p.8.
Mental Test. (1939, Dec. 28). Boxing solon suspends 81 fighters: Mental test may bar punch drunk fighters. Wilkes-Barre Evening News PA, p.18.
Mentally Deranged. (1914, Dec. 1). Mentally deranged result of injury. Allentown Leader PA, p.1.
Metzger, S. (1925, Oct. 5). Football secrets. Boston Daily Globe, p.6.
Metzger, S. (1925, Oct. 31). Football secrets. Boston Daily Globe, p.12.
Midshipmen Wilson. (1909, Nov. 1). Midshipmen Wilson dying from football injuries. Atlanta Constitution, p.6.
Might Bowl. (1960, Nov. 8). Might have Bowl here. Lubbock Avalanche-Journal TX, p.27.
Millard, H. (1935, Oct. 9). Bait and bugs. Decatur Daily Review IL, p.20.
Mitten Pastime. (1924, Nov. 4). Mitten pastime in tangled mess. Lincoln Star NE, p.10.
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Mooney, J. (1959, May 27). Sports mirror. Salt Lake Tribune, p.13.
Morrison, T. (1961, Jan. 8). On the sidelines. Idaho State Journal, p.11.
Mr. Walter Camp. (1890, Nov. 29). [No headline or byline for stand-alone text in column.] Winnipeg Tribune, Manitoba, Canada, p.4.
Mulling Athletics. (1937, Nov. 18). Mulling over athletics. Chapel Hill Daily Tar Heel NC, p.2.
Murray, T. (1958, Oct. 22). Gulf Coast sports. La Marque Times TX, p.8.
New Armor. (1903, Aug. 10). New football armor. York Daily PA, p.4.
New Blocking. (1958, Sept. 14). New blocking rule may result in raft of shoulder injuries. Terre Haute Tribune IN, p.34.
New Football. (1903, Aug. 8). New football devices. St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p.29.
New Gridiron. (1912, Feb. 18). New gridiron game is just Yale’s kind. Anaconda Standard MT, p.23.
New Helmet. (1943, July 2). New helmet is much better. Cumberland News MD, p.4.
New Rules. (1887, Oct. 29). New foot-ball rules. St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p.8.
New Rules. (1910, April 9). New football rules make safer game. Winfield Daily Press KS, p.7.
News Day. (1939, Sept. 28). News of the day. Van Nuys News CA, p.6.
Nichols, E.H., & Smith, H.B. (1906, Jan. 4). The physical aspect of American football. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, 154 (1), pp.1-8.
No Mollycoddles. (1907, Feb. 24). No mollycoddles, says Roosevelt. New York Times, p.1.
No More. (1883, Nov. 23). No more football at Harvard. New York Times, p.1.
Notes From. (1939, Nov. 7). Notes from a football pressbox. Logansport Pharos-Tribune IN, p.2.
O’Brien, J. (1938, Dec. 1). Canonsburg cannonades. Canonsburg Daily Notes PA, p.8.
Of Interest. (1893, Aug. 10). Of interest to athletes. Leavenworth Weekly Times KS, p.5.
Office Wife. (1938, Dec. 18). ‘Office wife’ was punch drunk when she slew. Atlanta Constitution, p.16A.
Official Doctor. (1929, Feb. 8). Official urges doctor on every gridiron. New York Times, p.25.
Old Harvard. (1898, Jan. 27). Old Harvard’s place. Boston Daily Globe, p.1.
Old Nassau. (1893, Nov. 5). Old Nassau won. New York World, p.12.
Old No. 39. (1940, Nov. 20). Old No. 39 has one more official ‘run’ to make. Christian Science Monitor, p.15.
O’Hara, B. (1908, Jan. 12). Lightweights in limelight now. Detroit Free Press, p.15.
On Field. (1890, Nov. 16). On the football field. New York Tribune, p.16.
On Gridiron. (1894, Nov. 11). On the gridiron. Salt Lake Herald UT, p.8.
On Screen. (1932, July 18). On the screen. New York Herald Tribune, p.8.
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Osteopath Tells. (1915, Jan. 30). Osteopath tells of clouded minds cleared by relieving nerve pressure. Fort Scott Daily Monitor KS, p.8.
Paragraphic Punches. (1897, Nov. 24). Paragraphic punches. Chicago Inter Ocean, p.6.
Paragraphs Films. (1936, May 31). Paragraphs on Brooklyn films. Brooklyn Daily Eagle, p.41.
Parrot, H.E. (1931, Dec. 9). Poor conditioning cause of epidemic of football injuries, says trainer. Brooklyn Daily Eagle, p.25.
Parson-Boxer. (1929, Feb. 7). Parson-Boxer wanted to throw wife out of window: Punch-drunk. Portsmouth Daily Times OH, p.16.
Payne, C.H. (1893, Jan. 11). The morals of intercollegiate games. Raleigh Christian Advocate NC, p.1.
Pearce, J.M.S. (2008, February). Observations on concussion: A review. European Neurology, 59 (3-4), pp.113-119.
Peck, T. (1936, Oct. 31). Michigan will meet Illinois. Escanaba Daily Press MI, p.16.
Pennsylvania Favors. (1893, Dec. 10). Pennsylvania favors a change. New York World, p.12.
Pennsylvania Legislature. (1897, Feb. 26). Pennsylvania legislature. New Bethlehem Vindicator PA, p.8.
People Events. (1895, Feb. 14). People and events. Chicago Inter Ocean, p.6.
Perry, L. (1929, Feb. 18). For the game’s sake. Altoona Mirror PA, p.15.
Pigskin Pickings. (1933, Oct. 13). Pigskin pickings. San Bernardino County Sun CA, p.18.
Pitcher Morris. (1887, Oct. 16). Pitcher Morris severely injured. Chicago Daily Tribune, p.13.
Plastic Helmet. (1940, Nov. 3). Plastic football helmet used by Northwestern. Kingsport Times TN, p.7.
Plumb, R.K. (1960, June 22). Neurosurgeons study knockout physiology. New York Times, p.38.
Polakoff, J. (1935, Oct. 24). Polley’s chatter. Scranton Republican PA, p.16.
Post Mortems. (1932, Dec. 28). Post mortems. Washington Post, p.11.
Povich, S. (1937, Jan. 11). This morning… with Shirley Povich. Washington Post, p.14.
Povich, S. (1937, Oct. 20). At the free lunch for overgrown kids. Washington Post, p.19.
Pratt Drops. (1906, Oct. 26). Pratt drops football because of danger. Brooklyn Daily Eagle, p.1.
Present Rules. (1926, Jan. 2). Present football rules are satisfactory in opinion of the Football Coaches Ass’n. Bryan Eagle TX, p.3.
President’s Day. (1907, Feb. 24). President’s busy day in Boston and in Cambridge. Boston Daily Globe, p.1.
Press Box. (1926, Nov. 10). The press box. Bluefield Daily Telegraph WV.
Princeton Re-Enforced. (1893, Nov. 20). Princeton is well re-enforced. Chicago Inter Ocean, p.4.
Princeton Wins. (1886, Nov. 14). Princeton wins again. New York Sun, p.2.
Princeton’s Opening. (1889, Oct. 6). Philadelphia Times, p.3.
Princeton’s Protest. (1887, Nov. 18). Princeton’s foot-ball protest. Philadelphia Times, p.1.
Pringle Over. (1898, Nov. 25). Pringle went over line for a touchdown for the University of California. San Francisco Call, p.2.
Proceedings AFCA. (1937, Dec. 29). Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the American Football Coaches Association. AFCA.
Protesting Football. (1893, Dec. 1). Protesting against football. Allentown Leader PA, p.4.
Punch Drunk. (1928, Oct. 22). ‘Punch drunk’ may apply in other sports. Bismarck Tribune ND, p.1.
Punch Drunk. (1937, April 26). Punch drunk. Anniston Star AL, p.4.
Punch-Drunk Boxer. (1937, June 5). Punch-drunk boxer compensation claim fails. Sydney Morning Herald, Australia.
Punch-Drunk Football. (1937, Sept. 29). Punch-drunk football stars! Atlanta Constitution, p.8.
Punch-Drunk Forger. (1932, July 12). Punch-drunk forger gets parole here. Belvidere Republican-Northwestern IL, p.6.
Punch Drunkenness. (1928, Oct. 19). Punch drunkenness is found outside the boxing profession. Brooklyn Daily Eagle, p.31.
Punch Drunkenness. (1957, Feb. 19). Punch drunkenness can cripple boxers for life. Oxnard Press-Courier CA, p.11.
Rah! Rah! (1889, Nov. 29). Rah! Rah! Rah! Rah! Cincinnati Enquirer, p.2.
Ralph Missing. (1892, Jan. 1). Ralph H. Warren missing. New York Sun, p.2.
Reading Kick. (1914, Dec. 3). Reading High kick blamed for crazy of Allentown. Reading Times PA, p.1.
Reddy, B. (1949, Aug. 25). Keeping posted. Syracuse Post-Standard NY, p.12.
Redskins Bothered. (1937, Dec. 11). Redskins bothered by wintry blasts. New York Times, p.13.
Reform Football. (1909, Jan. 16). Reform in football. New York Tribune, p.10.
Reformed Foot-Ball. (1894, Oct. 30). Reformed foot-ball. Rochester Democrat and Chronicle NY, p.6.
Reichert, J.L., Glasscock, E.L., Logan, G.B., Maksim, G., Moody, E.E., Shaffer, T.E., Stuart, H.C., & Yankauer, A. (1956, October). Report: Committee on school health: Competitive athletics: A statement of policy [American Academy of Pediatrics]. Pediatrics, 18 (4), pp.672-76.
Rice, G. (1926, Nov. 15). Notre Dame, Navy, Brown, Stanford, Lafayette, NYU, Alabama leading unbeaten elevens. New York Herald Tribune, p.19.
Rice, G. (1931, Dec. 5). Grantland Rice’s sport light. Lincoln Evening Journal NE, p.8.
Rice, G. (1937, May 26). If kid has any knack, boxing is career, Leonard tells Rice. Baltimore Sun, p.19.
Richards, E.L. (1894, October). The football situation. Popular Science Monthly, 45, pp.721-33.
Richardson, W.D. (1940, Oct. 23). LaManna and Frank to see action for N.Y.U. on Saturday. New York Times, p.29.
Rigid Exams. (1962, Jan. 11). Rigid exams urged for grid players. Ogden Standard-Examiner UT, p.24.
Ring Official. (1936, Sept. 17). Ring official once fought as a pro. Washington Post, p.X19.
Ripley, R.L. (1919, Aug. 25). Gameness is usually associated with boxing. Houston Post, p.7.
Rising Deaths. (1961, Oct. 13). Rising grid deaths cause concern. Kansas City Times, p.30.
Roosevelt Crusade. (1905, Oct. 10). Roosevelt in new crusade. Chicago Tribune, p.1.
Roosevelt Robe. (1910, May 27). Roosevelt in red robe. Baltimore Sun, p.2.
Rules Exercise. (1891, May 3). Rules of exercise. Pittsburgh Dispatch, p.10.
Rules Manly. (1883, Nov. 24). Rules for a manly sport. New York Times, p.4.
Runyon, D. (1929, Nov. 7). Runyon says. Harrisburg Evening News PA, p.28.
Russell, D. (1962, Feb. 1). Rustlin’ sports: Trainers meeting will get attention. Albuquerque Journal, p.15.
Ryan, A.J. (1962, Sept. 2). Let’s stop football tragedies. The Week magazine, Salt Lake Tribune, p.95.
Safer Football. (1906, Nov. 27). Safer football. Hutchinson News KS, p.2.
Safer Football. (1909, Dec. 22). Safer football aim of experts. Bismarck Tribune ND, p.10.
Says Dangerous. (1906, July 3). Says athletics are dangerous to life. Indianapolis News, p.10.
Says Insane. (1928, March 13). Says he was insane when he killed wife. Wilkes-Barre Evening News PA, p.21.
Savage, H.J., Bentley, H.W., McGovern, J.T., & Smiley, D.F. (1929). American College Athletics: Bulletin Number Twenty-Three. Carnegie Foundation: New York.
Saxton Case. (1962, Feb. 8). Saxton case dismissed. New York Times, p.20.
Schneider, R.C., Reifel, E., Crisler, H.O., & Oosterbaan, B.G. (1961, Aug. 12). Serious and fatal football injuries involving the head and spinal cord. Journal of the American Medical Association, 177 (6), pp.362-67.
Schuylkill Victory. (1928, Oct. 15). Schuylkill victory not as impressive as score indicates. Reading Times PA, p.13.
Scraps. (1887, Dec. 2). “Scraps.” Indianapolis News, p.2.
Scrimmages Harmful. (1931, Oct. 17). Scrimmages harmful to team, Michigan State coach asserts. New York Times, p.18.
Scully Claims. (1937, Sept. 29). Scully claims that football changes players into ‘stumble backs,’ half-wits. Columbia Daily Spectator NY, p.3.
Season Close. (1909, Nov. 27). Season just closed most disastrous in history of football; 29 men killed. Topeka Daily Capital KS, p.1.
Sembower, J.F. (1961, Nov. 22) Players “wired” for sound probe cause of grid hurts. Circleville Herald OH, p.15.
Sheldon Ban. (1910, Jan. 22). Sheldon would put ban on high school game. Indianapolis News, p.8.
Shell-Shock Misnomer. (1931, Aug. 10). Shell-shock misnomer. Valparaiso Vidette-Messenger IN, p.4.
Shock Battle. (1915, June 8). Shock of battle causes rare ills. Bremen Enquirer IN, p.4.
Sidney Blackmer. (1920, May 30). Sidney Blackmer trains for stage as he did when playing football, he says. New York Tribune, p.B1.
Sideline Slants. (1937, Oct. 5). Sideline slants. Stanford Daily CA, p.3.
Sixty-Two Safer. (1905, Dec. 29). Sixty-two colleges for safer football. Harrisburg Daily Independent PA, p.4.
Smith, D.K. (1963, April 9). No butting. Ames Daily Tribune IA, p.9.
Smith, R. (1957, Dec. 25). Red Smith. New York Herald Tribune, p.B1.
Some Ex-Fighters. (1930, Aug. 11). Some ex-fighters on Easy Street. Daily Boston Globe, p.9.
Sport Comments. (1934, Jan. 5). Sport comments. De Kalb Daily Chronicle IL, p.6.
Sport Tips. (1938, Sept. 21). Sport tips. Frederick News MD, p.6.
Sporting News. (1901, Feb. 4). Sporting news in general. Oshkosh Daily Northwestern WI, p.3.
Sports Air. (1887, Nov. 27). Sports in the open air. New York Tribune, p.2.
St. John’s Prepping. (1933, Oct. 25). St. John’s is prepping for Hopkins game. Hagerstown Daily Mail MD, p.7.
Starnes, R. (1961, Nov. 24). Richard Starnes says: Football has its tragedies. Delaware County Times PA, p.4.
Steelton Wins. (1904, Oct. 31). Steelton wins by one point. Harrisburg Telegraph PA, p.6.
Steps Suggested. (1961, Oct. 14). Steps for curbing accidents suggested. Corpus Christi Caller TX, p.21.
Stevens, M.A., & Phelps, W.M. (1933). The Control of Football Injuries. A.S. Barnes and Company: New York.
Stop Tragedies. (1931, Dec. 10). Stop these football tragedies! Canandaigua Daily Messenger NY, p.10.
Strong Words. (1905, Nov. 27). Strong words from U. of C. Chicago Tribune, p.2.
Stroop, J.R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, pp.643-62.
Students Stop. (1909, Nov. 2). Students stop all athletics. Scranton Truth PA, p.9.
Suicide Story. (1905, Dec. 1). Suicide story an absurdity, Clark says. Minneapolis Journal, p.14.
Surgeons Score. (1906, Jan. 6). Surgeons score gridiron sport. Greensboro Daily Industrial News NC, p.3.
Sustains Injury. (1914, Nov. 24). Sustains curious football injury. Escanaba Morning Press MI, p.5.
Swords Gloves. (1930, May 30). Swords and gloves. Brooklyn Daily Eagle, p.16.
Sylvester, H. (1935, Sept. 8). Sporting chances. New York Herald Tribune, p.SM16.
Tackling Rule. (1908, Nov. 7). Tackling not now a matter of strict rule. St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p.6.
Taube, M. (1940, Nov. 3). Gridiron success is achieved by faithful practice of fundamentals. Hartford Courant CT, p.D3.
Tech Suggests. (1909, Nov. 23). Tech suggest rule changes. Atlanta Constitution, p.10.
Telander, R. (1989). The Hundred Yard lie: The Corruption of College Football and What We Can Do to Stop It. Simon and Schuster: New York.
Tells Insanity. (1909, Nov. 27). Tells of insanity in Ellis family. Daily Arkansas Gazette, p.1.
The Bag. (1893, Sept. 23). The tackling bag. San Francisco Chronicle, p.9.
The Century. (1887, Sept. 27). The Century for October. Easton Star-Democrat PA, p.3.
The Cumnock. (1890, Nov. 2). The Cumnock nose mask. New York Times, p.2.
The Deadly. (1902, Dec. 13). The deadly pigskin. Atlanta Constitution, p.6.
The Faults. (1893, Nov. 27). The faults at football. New York Sun, p.6.
The Foot Ball Rules. (1894, May 30). [No headline or byline for stand-alone text in column.] Fort Scott Daily Monitor KS, p.2.
The Footballs. (1888, Nov. 29). The footballs. New York Evening World, p.1.
The Game. (1892, Dec. 19). The football game. San Francisco Morning Call, p.4.
The Growth. (1894, Oct. 28). The growth of football. New York Sun, p.20.
The New. (1906, Oct. 12). The new football. New York Times, p.8.
The News. (1894, Jan. 6). The news in brief. San Bernardino Weekly Courier CA, p.6.
The Toll. (1912, Jan. 13). Winnipeg Tribune, Manitoba, Canada, p.4.
The Sport. (1889, Nov. 19). The sport of the season. Wilkes-Barre Evening News PA, p.2.
Theodore Hurt. (1905, Nov. 19). Theodore hurt in game: President’s son carried from the field unable to stir. Washington Post, p.3.
They Can’t. (1894, Dec. 28). The can’t slug now. Chicago Daily Tribune, p.1.
This Game. (1895, Nov. 2). This game will show. Chicago Inter Ocean, p.4.
Tigers Win. (1899, Nov. 26). Tigers win great game. Chicago Daily Tribune, p.17.
To Reform. (1897, Dec. 10). To reform the game of football. Rochester Democrat and Chronicle NY, p.23.
To Make. (1894, Jan. 2). To make football less brutal. Kansas City Gazette KS, p.3.
Training For. (1899, Oct. 29). Training for football. Detroit Free Press, p.C3.
Transit Company. (1912, Aug. 31). Transit Company employees’ outing. Allentown Democrat PA, p.1.
Trevor, G. (1925, Feb. 4). Centre College’s famous tackle may yet wear Dempsey’s crown. Brooklyn Daily Eagle, p.19.
Trotter, W. (1924, May 10). On certain minor injuries of the brain. British Medical Journal, 1 (3306), pp.816-19.
Tunney Backs. (1937, Feb. 5). Tunney backs school boxing. Baltimore Sun, p.16.
Two Football Players. (1909, Oct. 11). [No headline or byline for stand-alone text in column.] Asbury Park Press NJ, p.4.
UM Surgeon. (1961, May 3). U-M surgeon suggests four changes in football helmets. Traverse City Record-Eagle MI, p.18.
Uncle Sam. (1941, July 31). Uncle Sam adopts sort of helmets used by gridders. Uniontown Evening Standard PA, p.10.
Van Dellen, T.R. (1963, Feb. 2). Boxing is not worth misery. Lake Charles American-Press LA, p.11.
Vicious Aggies. (1940, Nov. 17). Vicious Aggies gridmen trample Rice with power. Hartford Courant CT, p.C5.
Vidmar, R. (1939, Nov. 19). Down in front. New York Herald Tribune, p.B8.
Vital Changes. (1912, Feb. 14). Vital changes in football code. Honolulu Evening Bulletin, p.9.
Walsh, G. (1961, Nov. 6). 18 football deaths: Is it the helmet? Sports Illustrated, 15 (21) , pp.24-25.
Walter Camp. (1894, Jan. 20). Walter Camp favors new rules. Chicago Inter Ocean, p.6.
Walton, G. L. (1883, October 11). Possible cerebral origin of the symptoms usually classed under “railway brain.” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, 109 (15), pp.337-42.
War Pathologist. (1916, Oct. 6). War not near end, says pathologist, back in U.S. Indianapolis Star, p.7.
Warburg, J.R. (1932, Nov. 15). Talk about bridge. Brooklyn Daily Eagle, p.19.
Was Injured. (1900, Dec. 1). Was seriously injured. Philadelphia Times, p.5.
Watterson, J.S. (2000). College Football: History, Spectacle, Controversy. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.
Weak Defense. (1898, Oct. 23). Weak in defense. Chicago Daily Tribune, p.30.
Wesleyan Last. (1888, Nov. 30). Wesleyan comes last. New York Tribune, p.8.
Wesleyan Rear. (1888, Nov. 30). Wesleyan in the rear. New York Times, p.8.
Wesleyan Wins. (1887, Nov. 25). Wesleyan wins: A very rough game in which Pennsylvania is defeated. Saint Paul Globe, p.1.
Wesleyan Wins. (1889, Nov. 29). Wesleyan wins. Lebanon Daily News PA, p.1.
Westwick’s Sport. (1955, Aug. 9). Westwick’s in the realm of sport. Ottawa Journal, Ontario, Canada, p.16.
Weyand, A.M.(1926). American Football. D. Appleton and Company: New York.
Where Killed. (1909, Nov. 2). Where the man—not the beast—is killed. Atlanta Constitution, p.6.
Why Fall. (1934, Nov. 6). Why stars fall. Albany Democrat-Herald GA, p.4.
Will Play. (1910, Nov. 10). Will play old rivals. Allentown Democrat PA, p.8.
Wines, F.H. (1895, Dec. 1). Cure for madness. New Orleans Times-Picayune, p.27.
Winkelman, N.W., & Eckel, J.L. (1934, May). Brain trauma: Histopathology during the early stages. Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry, 31 (5), pp.956-986.
Wisconsin Favorite. (1928, Nov. 24). Wisconsin is favorite. Bismarck Tribune ND, p.4.
Wolgast Guardian. (1917, April 3). Guardian for Wolgast. Wichita Beagle KS, p.7.
Yale End. (1904, Oct. 9). Yale loses end rush McMahon. Chicago Daily Tribune, p.3.
Yale Harvard. (1890, Nov. 18). Pittsburgh Daily Post, p.6.
Yale Hero. (1901, Nov. 26). Yale hero taken home. Chicago Daily Tribune, p.6.
Yale Princeton. (1892, Nov. 23). Yale vs. Princeton. New Castle News PA, p.1.
Yale’s Turn. (1887, Nov. 20). Yale’s turn to yell. Chicago Inter Ocean, p.1.
Young Boxers. (1932, Sept. 21). Young boxers exploited for gain become punch drunk wrecks. Boston Globe, p.23.
Young, S. (1942, Sept. 16). Canadian sport snapshots. Winnipeg Tribune, Manitoba, Canada, p.17.
Your Health. (1936, July 6). Your health. Monongahela Daily Republican PA, p.2.
Youth Football. (1959, Aug. 30). Youth football out. San Bernardino County Sun CA, p.56.
Zero Score. (1894, Oct. 28). Zero was the score. San Francisco Chronicle, p.17.
Copyright ©2016 for historical arrangement by Matthew L. Chaney
Matt Chaney is a writer, researcher and consultant on public issues in sport, specializing in American football for three decades. Chaney, an MA in media studies, is a former college football player and coach whose books include Spiral of Denial: Muscle Doping in American Football, self-published in 2009. Chaney’s study for graduate thesis, co-published with the University of Central Missouri in 2001, analyzed print sport-media coverage of anabolic substances in football from 1983-1999. Email him at email@example.com or visit the website for more information.